سنجش تاب‌آوری و توان اکولوژی شهری در برابر زلزله با تاکید بر مولفه‌های محیطی (نمونه موردی: منطقه یک شهرداری تهران)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی

چکیده

 
افزایش جمعیت و رشد روزافزون شهرنشینی منجر به رشد و گسترش شهرها در مکان‌های نامساعد بدون توجه به پارامترهای طبیعی و بوم‌شناختی شده است. روند توسعه فیزیکی بدون برنامه، آسیب‌پذیری شهرها در برابر مخاطرات محیطی را تشدید کرده است که هدایت آگاهانه و برنامه‌ریزی اصولی در جهت ایجاد پایداری محیطی را می‌طلبد.از این‌رو پژوهش حاضر درصدد است تا با استفاده از مدل ANP در رویکردی تلفیقی با GIS، میزان تاب‌آوری و توان اکولوژی منطقه یک شهر تهران در برابر زلزله را در ارتباط با 8 معیار اصلی (شیب، جهت‌های شیب، سازندهای زمین‌شناسی، نوع گسل، فاصله از بستر رودخانه‌ها، فاصله از مسیر قنات‌ها، کاربری اراضی و فاصله از اراضی ناپایدار به لحاظ شهرسازی) و 38 زیرمعیار ارزیابی نماید. روش این پژوهش از نوع توصیفی- تحلیلی با هدف کاربردی است. نتایج پژوهش نشان می‌دهد که 28/27 درصد از سطح منطقه (63/946 هکتار) از تاب‌آوری خیلی زیاد، 86/10 درصد (97/376 هکتار) از تاب‌آوری زیادی، 46/23 درصد (88/813 هکتار) از تاب‌آوری متوسط، 03/25 درصد (60/868 هکتار) از تاب‌آوری کم و 34/13 درصد (00/463 هکتار) از تاب‌آوری خیلی کم در برابر زلزله برخوردار می‌باشد. به‌طورکلی می‌توان گفت نواحی شهرداری که در غرب منطقه یک شهرداری تهران واقع شده‌اند نسبت به دیگر نواحی منطقه از تاب‌آوری و توان اکولوژی کمتری در برابر زلزله برخوردار می‌باشند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Resilience Evaluation and Urban Ecological Power Against Earthquake with Emphasis on Environmental Components (Case Study: Tehran Municipality District 1)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ali eshghei
  • Hossein nazmfar
  • Ata Gafari
University of Mohaghegh Ardabili
چکیده [English]

Increasing population and growing urbanization have led to the growth and expansion of cities in uncertain locations, regardless of natural and biological parameters. The process of unplanned physical development has aggravated the vulnerability of cities to environmental hazards, which requires informed guidance and basic planning for environmental sustainability. Therefore, the present study intends to use the ANP model in a synthetic approach with GIS to evaluate the resilience rate and ecological power of a district of Tehran against earthquakes in relation to the eight main criteria (slope, gradient direction, geological structures, fault type, distance From the bed of the rivers, the distance from the aqueducts, land use and distance from unsustainable areas in terms of urbanization) and 38 sub-criteria. The method of this research is descriptive-analytic with an objective purpose. The results of this study showed that 27.28% of the area (946.63 Hectares) has a very high resilience, 10.86% (376.97 hectares) has a high resilience, 23.46% (813.88 hectares) has a moderate resilience, 25.03% (868.60 hectares) has a low resilience and 13.34% (463.00 hectares) has a very low resilience against earthquake. In general, municipality districts located in the west of Tehran's municipality district 1 are less tolerable and less ecological power to earthquakes than other areas of the district.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Resilience
  • Earthquake
  • Analysis of Network Process (ANP)
  • District 1 of Tehran
Achmad, A.; Hasyim, S.; Dahlan, B. & N.Aulia, D. 2015. Modeling of urban growth in tsunami-prone city using logistic regression: Analysis of Banda Aceh, Indonesia, Applied geography, NO 62.

Aminiorki, S.; Modiri, M.; Shamsaizafarghandi, F. & Ghanbarinasab, A. 2015. Identification of Governing Perspectives on Vulnerability of Cities to Environmental Hazards and Extraction of its Components Using QI Method, Two Crisis Management Journal, Journal of Passive Defense Weekly: 5-18. (in persian).

Amiri, M.S.; Sepehrzad, B.; Marab, Y. & Salehi, A. 2017. Evaluation of physical resilience of earthquake zone 12 in Tehran using FAHP and Vikor model, Journal of Geographical Research, 32 (1): 147-138. (in persian).

Azizian, MS.; Nagdi, F. & Malazadeh, M. 2013. Evaluation of ecological potential of Tabriz suburbs for sustainable urban development with MCE approach, Journal of Urban Research and Planning. 4 (13): 113 - 128. (in persian).

Badri, A. & Ghanbari, JS. 2006. Evaluation of Environmental Capacity in Rural Civilization (Case Study: Ajabshir River Castle chye), Journal of Geographical Research. (4): 173- 185. (in persian).

Bahrampour, M.Bamanian, MR. 2012. Explaining the Locating Pattern of Crisis Management Bases Using GIS (Case Study of Tehran District 3), Two Quarterly Journal of Crisis Management, (1): 59-51. (in persian).

Bastaminia, A.; Rezaie, MR.; Tazesh, Y. & Dastoorpoor, M. 2016. Evaluation of Urban Resilience to Earthquake a Case Study: Dehdasht City, International Journal of Ecology & Development, Volume 31, Issue Number4

Berke, P.; Smith, G. & Lyles, W. 2012. Planning for Resiliency: Evaluation of State Hazard Mitigation Plans under the Disaster Mitigation Act. Nat. Hazards Rev. PP: 139-149.

Berke, Ph.; Godschalk, D. & Edward, K. 2006. Urban landuse planning. 5th Edition. Chicago: University of Illinois Press.

Buffett City Consulting Engineers. 2006. Preparation of Development Model and Detailed Plan of the Region and Cooperation with Municipality of Region 1 (Development Model of Region 1), Tehran Center for Urban Studies and Planning. (in persian).

Dadashpour, A. & Adel, Z. 2016. Measuring Resilience Capacities in Qazvin Urban Complex, Two Crisis Management Research Quarterly. (8): 73 - 84. (in persian).

Dehghani, H.; Mirzaei, N. & Eskandarighadi, M. 2013. Seismicity Study of Isfahan Region, Journal of Earth and Space Physics. 38 (4): 1 - 22. (in persian).

Dong, L. & Jie, S. 2013. A comprehensive review of earthquake induced building damage detection with remote sensing techniques, ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing 84 (2013), PP 85–99,www.elsevier.com/locate/isprsjprs

Dutta‚ V. 2012. War on the Dream‚ How Land use Dynamics and Peri-urban Growth Characteristics of a Sprawling City Devour the Master Plan and Urban Suitability‚ A Fuzzy Multi-criteria Decision Making Approach‚ proceeded In 13th Global Development Conference “Urbanisation and Development: Delving Deeper into the Nexus”‚Budapest‚hungary

Falco, G. J. 2015. City Resilience through Data Analytics: A Human-centric Approach. Procedia Engineering, 118, 1008-1014. Retrieved from: www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/ pii/S1877705815021979.

Gahramani, A.A. & Godrtabadi, L. 2013. T The Role of GIS in Risk and Disaster Risk Analysis of Districts 3 and 6 of Tehran Municipality, Journal of Disaster Prevention and Management Knowledge. 2 (4): 311 - 321. (in persian).

Hataminejad, H.; Farhadi Khah, H.; Arvin, M. & Rahimpour, N. 2017. Investigating the Effective Dimensions of Urban Resilience Using Interpretive Structural Model (Case Study of Ahvaz City), Journal of Crisis Prevention and Management Knowledge, 7 (1): 45-35. (in persian).

Institute of Geography and Cartography Geology. 2009. History of Tehran, Second Edition: Tehran. (in persian).

Jesuslu, S.; Latifi, G.R. & Goodarzi, V. 2017. Assessment of Physical Tissue Vulnerability of Area One of Tehran City to Possible Earthquake Using IHWP Method and GIS System, Journal of Geographical Information (Sepehr). 25 (100): 73 - 87. (in persian).

Jha, K.; Miner‚ W. & Geddes‚ S. 2012. Building urban resilience: principles, tools, and practice‚ the world Bank ‚ pp. 155.

Jokersarhangi, E. 2014. Comparative Assessment of the Location and Development of Urban Centers in Mazandaran Province with Ecological, Geographical and Development Approach. (33): 97 -112. (in persian).

Josie, A. & Hosseini, Z. 2015. Evaluation of Yasuj Ecological Capacity to Deploy Urban Development, Environmental Studies. 41 (3): 589–612. (in persian).

León‚ J. & March‚ A. 2014. Urban morphology as a tool for supporting tsunami rapid resilience: A case study of Talcahuano, Chile‚ Habitat International‚ Volume 43, PP 250–262.

Lewis, Dan. & Jaana Mioch. 2005. Urban vulnerability, good government, Journal of contingencies and crisis management.

Lopez, E.; Bocco, G.; Mendoza, M. & Duhau, E. 2001. Predicting land-cover and land-use change in the urban fringe, A case in Morelia city, Mexico, Landscape and urban planning, NO 55.

Meerow, S.; Newell, J.P. & Stults, M. 2016. Defining urban resilience: A review. Landscape and Urban Planning, 147, 38-49. Retrieved from: www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/ pii/S0169204615002418.

Min Xu, C.; Hao Zhang, J.; Kaneyuki, N.; Qisheng, J.; Chaoyi Chang, Y.; & Mengxu Gao, X. 2010. Change Detection of an Earthquake Induced Barrier Lake Based on Remote Sensing Image Classification, International Journal of Remote Sensing. 31 (13), pp3521-3534.

Moazami, B. & Rahimi, M. 2016. Evaluation and formulation of crisis resilience strategies in ancient urban context (Case study: Feizabad neighborhood of Kermanshah), Geography and Environmental Studies. 5 (18): 23-34. (in persian).

Mohammad, M. & Ahmadinejad, M. 2016. Evaluation of Urban Physical Resilience to Earthquake Hazard Study: Zanjan, Journal of Spatial Analysis of Environmental Hazards. 3 (1): 103 - 114. (in persian).

Mubarak, A.; Lalehpour, M. & Afzaligroup, Z. 2016. Investigating the Status of the Four Areas of Kerman for Resilience Components and Indicators, Urban Areas Studies Journal of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, 2 (5): 159-139. (in persian).

Population Division, United Nations. 2009. World population prospects. UN.

Pormosavi, M.; Shamsai, A.; Ahmadinejad, M.; Aeshgheichaharborj, A. & Khosravi, S. 2014. Vulnerability Assessment of City Buildings Using Fuzzy AHP and GIS Model (Case Study: District 3 of Tehran Municipality), Geography and Development, (34): 131-112. (in persian).

Qaherahmati, S. & Qaneibafaghi, R. 2012. Analysis of the Impact of Spatial Expansion of Tehran on Increasing Earthquake Vulnerability (Time Period: Physical Expansion of 200 Years), Geographical Research. 27 (2): 18218- 18240. (in persian).

Quarantelli, E L. 2003. Urban vulnerability to disasters in developing countries:Managing risks. In building safer cities. Washington.

Regulation 2800. 2006. Design of buildings against earthquake-rites, Iranian Institute of Standards and Industrial Research, Third revision. (in persian).

Sadin, H.; Mirzaali, M. & Kowsarisafa, M. 2017. Risk and Damage Analysis of Rural Earthquakes Using AHP and GIS Methods (Case Study: Damavand Abarshive Village), Two Quarterly Journal of Crisis Management, (11): 104-93. (in persian).

Salmaniyehmoghaddam, M.; Amir Ahmadi, A. & Kaviani, F. 2014. Application of Land Use Planning to Increase Urban Resilience to Earthquakes Using Geographic Information GIS, Case Study of Sabzevar City, Geographical Studies of Dry Areas, 5 (17): 17-34. (in persian).

Shukrifirouzah, P. 2017. Spatial Analysis of Resilience of Babol Regions to Environmental Hazards, Journal of Physical Development Planning Research, 2 (2): 27-44. (in persian).

Tehran Municipality Website. 2017. http://region1.tehran.ir. (in persian).

Usamah‚ M.; Handmer‚ J.; Mitchell‚ D. & Ahmed‚ I. 2014. Can the vulnerable be resilient? Co-existence of vulnerability and disaster resilience: Informal settlements in the Philippines‚ International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction‚ Volume 10, Part A, Pages 178–189.

Zanganehshahri, S.; Ziyari, K. & Purakarma, M. 2017. Seismicity Study of Isfahan Region, Journal of Earth and Space Physics. 38 (4): 1 - 22. (in persian).

Zargham, S.; Teimouri, A.; Mohammedian, H. & Shamaee, A. 2017. Measuring and Evaluating the Resilience of Urban Neighborhoods against Earthquake, (Central Section of Zanjan), Journal of Urban Research and Planning, 7 (27): 92-77. (in persian).

Zhou, H.; wang, J.; Wan, J. & Jia, H. 2009. Resilience to natural hazards: A geographic perspective, Nat Hazards.