بررسی اثر تغییرات کمی و کیفی منابع آب زیرزمینی بر آلودگی آبخوان (مطالعه موردی: دشت لنجانات، اصفهان )

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری گروه مهندسی آب، دانشگاه لرستان، ایران

2 دانشیار گروه مهندسی آب دانشگاه لرستان، ایران

3 استادیار گروه مهندسی آب دانشگاه لرستان، ایران

چکیده

بررسی تغییرات کمی و کیفی منابع آب زیرزمینی در برنامه‌ریزی و مدیریت پایدار منابع آب هر منطقه از اهمیت ویژه‌‌ای برخوردار است. دشت لنجانات در جنوب غربی اصفهان واقع شده و دارای اقلیم خشک و نیمه‌خشک است. در سال‌‌های اخیر به دلیل خشکسالی‌‌های متوالی، مدیریت نامناسب منابع آب و بهره‌برداری بی‌رویه، استفاده از کود و سموم نامناسب، کاهش سطح زیر کشت، افزایش فعالیت‌‌های صنعتی و دفع نامناسب فاضلاب شهری و صنعتی با بحران کمی و کیفی آب زیرزمینی روبه‌رو شده است. در این مطالعه نقش تغییرات کمی و کیفی آب زیرزمینی بر آلودگی آبخوان دشت لنجانات مورد مطالعه قرار گرفت. تغییرات کمی آب زیرزمینی با بررسی تراز سطح ایستابی در دوره آماری 1370 تا 1395 به صورت نمودار و نقشه پهنه‌بندی مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت و نتایج حاکی از افت سطح آب زیرزمینی به میزان 24/0 متر در سال است که از سال 1386 به بعد کاملا محسوس‌تر است. در پی کاهش کمی منابع مقدار هدایت الکتریکی در آب زیرزمینی 42 درصد افزایش پیدا کرده است. به منظور بررسی کیفیت آب زیرزمینی از 66 حلقه چاه و قنات نمونه‌برداری شد و پارامترهای فیزیکی، شیمیایی و میکروبی در آنها آنالیز شد. سپس پتانسیل طبیعی آبخوان به آلودگی با مدل دراستیک تعیین شد و این مدل با داده‌‌های نیترات محدوده مطالعاتی کالیبره شد، تا حریم کیفی آبخوان مشخص شود. نتایج حریم کیفی آبخوان نشان داد ناحیه شمال، غرب و شرق حوضه دارای خطر آلودگی بالا است. همچنین تغییرات زمانی پارامترهای کیفی آب زیرزمینی شامل کل جامدات محلول، سختی کل، SAR و مجموع آنیون‌‌ها و کاتیون‌‌ها در طی دوره آماری 1374 تا 1395 آنالیز شد که نتایج روند افزایشی این پارامترها را در آبخوان نشان داد. شاخص کیفیت آب زیرزمینی (IRWQIGC) در آبخوان لنجانات تعیین و پهنه‌بندی شد. میزان این شاخص در شمال حوضه نامطلوب است. ناحیه مرکزی محدوده مورد مطالعه به سمت شمال آن به دلیل توسعه بیشتر صنعتی، شهری و کشاورزی و نفوذ مستقیم پساب این کاربری‌‌ها به آبخوان همواره در معرض آلودگی است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of Groundwater Quantity and Quality on Aquifer Pollutant (Case Study: Lenjanat Plain, Isfahan)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Navideh Najafpour 1
  • hassan torabi poode 2
  • HojatAllah Yoonesi 3
1 Ph. D. Student. Water Engineering Department, Lorestan University, Iran
2 Assoc. Prof. Water Engineering Department, Lorestan University, Iran
3 Assist. Prof. Water Engineering Department, Lorestan University, Iran
چکیده [English]

In recent years, this plain has been faced with a qualitative and a quantitative crisis of groundwater due to the long time drought, improper management of water resources and irregular exploitation, using inappropriate fertilizers and poisons, decrease in cultivated area, an increase in industrial activities and improper disposal of urban and industrial wastewater. Lenjanat Plain with an arid and semi-arid climate, located in southwest of Esfahan province in Iran Therefore, in this study the effect of these factors and natural features of the‏ aquifer on the qualitative and quantitative changes of groundwater in the region was investigated. In this respect, the quantitative changes of groundwater were evaluated as a diagram as well as a zoning map by investigating the water table level in the statistical period of 1990–2016. In addition, the DRASTIC model was applied to study of the natural contamination potential of the aquifer. The model was calibrated by using nitrate data. To investigate the effect of contamination factors on groundwater resources, sampling from resources‏ and the measurement of the different qualitative parameters in the related aquifer was conducted. Then, the groundwater quality index was determined, and the concentrations of various parameters were compared with the standards. The results of quantity evaluation indicated a decrease in level of 0.24 meters per annum in the groundwater, which it was more apparent at 2007. Following this decline, the electrical conductivity of water increased by 42 percent. To evaluate the DRASTIC index seven parameters were weighted and ranked and then were combined with each other. the nitrate ion was used to calibration and modification of DRASTIC index. temporally changes in the groundwater quality parameters were determined and result showed the concentration of parameters were increased due to the period of 1995-2016. The results showed that there is a high contamination risk in the north, west and east of the plain and also Lanjanat Plain expose to the unnatural risk factors due to urban, agricultural and industrial development and direct penetration of sewage into the aquifer. According to the index of Iran's environmental organization, most of the studied samples were recognized contaminated.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • aquifer
  • Groundwater
  • vulnerability
  • Quality
  • Quantity changing
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