تحلیل الگوی پراکنش و فشردگی فرم شهری با رویکرد فرم شهری پایدار در کلانشهرها (مطالعه موردی: کلانشهر تبریز)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد گروه جغرافیا و برنامه‌‌ریزی شهری دانشگاه تبریز، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه جغرافیا و برنامه‌‌ریزی شهری دانشگاه تبریز، ایران

3 دکتری جغرافیا و برنامه‌‌ریزی شهری دانشگاه تبریز، ایران

چکیده

در پی افزایش جمعیت شهرنشین و بروز بحران‌های محیط‌زیست و ناپایداری‌های محیطی در شهرها، یکی از موارد اساسی در راستای نیل به توسعه شهری پایدار، شناخت فرم شهری و تلاش برای دستیابی به فرم پایدار است. از همین رو هدف پژوهش حاضر بررسی انواع فرم‌های شهری و رابطه آن با مفاهیم پایداری و ساماندهی الگوی توسعه، فرم شهری تبریز است. روش تحقیق حاضر، توصیفی تحلیلی با اهداف کاربردی است. داده‌‌های مورد نیاز ازطریق اسناد و سازمان‌‌های مختلف جمع‌‌آوری و با استفاده از مدل‌‌های آنتروپی شانون، هلدرن و ضریب جینی مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفته است. مقدار مطلق آنتروپی کلانشهر تبریز در سال 1335 برابر با مقدار 3692/1 و مقدار نسبی آن حدود 7641/0 می‌باشد که در سال 1395 به ترتیب به 1951/2 و 9533/0 رسیده است. نزدیک بودن مقدار آنتروپی به مقدار حداکثر، نشانگر رشد پراکنده شهر است. در بررسی بی‌‌قوارگی شهر با استفاده از مدل هلدرن طی سال‌‌های 1335-1395، حدود 69 درصد از رشد فیزیکی شهر مربوط به رشد جمعیت و 31 درصد مربوط به رشد اسپرال بوده است که به کاهش تراکم ناخالص جمعیت و افزایش سرانه ناخالص زمین شهری منجر شده است و مقدار ضریب جینی برابر 005/0 می‌باشد که نشان می‌دهد رشد فیزیکی شهر به حالت پراکنش و دارای الگویی غیرمتراکم است.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Analysis of Pattern of Distribution and Compression of Urban Form with Sustainable Urban Formation Approach in Metropolises (Case Study: Tabriz Metropolis)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Rahim Gholamhossini 1
  • Rasoul Ghorbani 2
  • Akbar Asghari zamani 3
1 Prof. Department of Geography and Urban Planning Tabriz University, Iran
2 Assoc. Prof. Department of Geography and Urban Planning Tabriz University, Iran
3 Ph.D. of Geography and Urban Planning Tabriz University, Iran
چکیده [English]

Following an increase in urban populations and the emergence of environmental crises and environmental instability in cities, one of the important issues in achieving sustainable urban development is the identification of the urban model and form, and efforts to achieve a sustainable form. The purpose of the present research is to investigate the types of cities and their relationship with sustainability .The method used in this research is the descriptive-analytical method. This is a descriptive-explanatory research that also has practical purposes. The required data are collected through documents, magazines, books related to the subject at hand, and different organizations. They were then analyzed using Shannon entropy and Holdren modelsBased on the results of the Shannon entropy model, the absolute value of entropy of the metropolitan metropolis of Tabriz in 1956 is equal to 1/3692 and its relative value is about 0/7641, which in 2007 reached to 2/1951 and 0/9533 respectively. The closeness of the entropy value to the maximum value indicates the city's scattered growth. Also, in the study of city dichotomy using the Holdern model in 1956-2007, about 69% of the city's physical growth was related to population growth and 31% growth of the city related to the horizontal and spherical growth of the city, which reduced the population's gross density And an increase in per capita gross urban land. And the Gini coefficient is equal to 0/005, which indicates that the physical growth of the city is in a dispersal state with an uncompromising pattern.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Urban Form
  • Urban distribution
  • Holdern
  • Entropy Shannon
  • Gini coefficient
  • Tabriz
Adams, M. A.; Todd, M.; Kurka, J.; Conway, T. L.; Cain, K. L.; Frank, L. D. & Sallis, J. F. 2015. Patterns of walkability, transit, and recreation environment for physical activity. American journal of preventive medicine, 49(6).
Arbury, J. 2005. From urban sprawl to compact city – An analysis of urban growth management in Auckland. Http://portal.jarbury.net/thesis.pdf.
Ballard. R; Johnson, G. & Torres, A .2002 growing smarter: building equity into a fair growth agenda, Clark Atlanta university, October 23
Beck, R.; Kolankiewiez, L.; Steven, A. & Camarota. 2003. Outsmarting Smart Growth, Immigration, and the Problem of Sprawl, Washington, Center for Immigration Studies.
Bhatta, B. 2010, Analysis of Urban Growth and Sprawl from Remote Sensing, Data Springer, London; p 191.
Bogart, W. 2009. Don't Call It Sprawl: Metropolitan Structure in the 21st Century, New York: Cambridge University Press; 2006. p 196
Burchal, R. & Shad, N. 1988 A National Prespective on Land Use Policy Alternatives and Consequences at the Rural- Urban Fringe, Rutgers University, pp: 13- 33
Burton, E. 2000. The Compact City: Just or just compact, A preliminary analysis, urban studies, University of Glasgow.
Cheng, J.; Jan, T.; MingjunPeng, N. D. & Peter, H. 2006. Urban land administration and planning in China: Opportunities and constraints of spatial data models. Land Use Policy, 23(4), 604–616.
Dempsey, Judith A.; Plantinga, Andrew J. Kline, Jeffrey D. Lawler, Joshua J. Martinuzzi, Sebastian. Radeloff, Volker c. Bigelow & Daniel P. 2016, Effects of Local land-use planning on development and disturbance in riparian areas, Land Use Policy, 60, 16-25
Frank, L. D.; Sallis, J. F.; Saelens, B. E.; Leary, L.; Cain, K.; Conway, T. L. & Hess, P. M. 2016. The development of a walkability index: application to the Neighborhood Quality of Life Study. British journal of sports medicine, 44(13), 924-933.
Frenkel, A. & Ashkenai, M. 2007. MeasuringUrbn Sprawl, How Con We Deal with it?, Urban&Regional Res.,No.42.pp.99-121.
Ghorbani, R. 2015. Principles and foundations of urban planning, Tehran, Samt Publications. in Persian.
Ghorbani, R. Jafari, F. Mabodi, M. Hossein Abadi, S. Gharavari, M. Javadzade, H. zafari, D. Farokhi, M. Noshad, S. Ghasemi, M., 2014. An analysis of new patterns of urban planning, Tabriz, Foroozeh Publications. in Persian.
Grosvenor. 2013. Resilient Cities: A Grosvenor Research Report. London: Grosvenor.
Hess, G.R. 2002. Just What is Sprawl, Anyway?, www4.ncsu.edu /~grhess.
Hosseini, S. A. 2010. Principles and foundations of urban and rural planning, First Edition, Rasht, Darya Danesh Publications. in Persian.
Hu, N.; Legara, E. F.; Lee, K. K.; Hung, G. G. & Monterola, C. 2016. Impacts of land use and amenities on public transport use, urban planning and design. Land Use Policy, 57, 356-367.
Hutchison. P., 2010. Encyclopedia of urban studies, Sage publication. London & New York.
Jabareen, Y. R. 2006. Sustainable Urban Forms: Their Typologies, Models, and Concepts, Journal of Planning Education and Research, Vol. 26, No. 1, PP. 38-52.
Karrholm, M. 2008. Setting the Scale of Sustainable Urban Form – Some scale-related problems discussed in the context of a Swedish urban landscape, Conference Architectural Inquiries, Göteborg 2008.
Litman, T. 2017. Land use impacts on transport: How land use factors affect travel behavior.
Lucy, W.H & Phillips, D.L. 2001. Suburbs and the Census: Patterns of Growth and Decline, Washington, D.C., The Brookings Institute.
Rodrigue, J. P.; Claude, C. & Brian, S. 2009. The Geography of Transport Systems, New York: Routledge.
Verzosa, L.C.O. & Gonzales, R.M. 2010. Remote Sensing, Geographic Information Systems and Shannon’s Entropy: Measuring Urban Sprawl in a Mountainous Environment, ISPRS TC VII Symposium, Part 7a, Austria, pp.269-274.
Wassmer, R.W. 2012. Influences of the Fiscalization of Land use and Urban- Growth, Journal of the American Planning Association, Vol. 55, PP. 23-37. 
Zheng, Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, G.; Li, L. & Ye, B. 2016. Survival Analysis on Passing Time of Minor Vehicle’s Road Crossing at Un-Signalized Intersection in China. Paper presented at the International Conference on Green Intelligent Transportation System and Safety.