ارزیابی زیستگاه و ظرفیت برد تغذیه‌ای گونه‌های (بز وحشی، گوسفند وحشی و آهوی ایرانی) در حوضه‌آبخیز پردیس دانشگاه اراک

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار گروه علوم و مهندسی محیط زیست، دانشکده کشاورزی و محیط زیست، دانشگاه اراک، ایران

چکیده

وضعیت پستانداران جهان به دلیل تخریب زیستگاه و شکار بی‌‌‌رویه نگران‌کننده است. مراکز تکثیر در اسارت حیات‌وحش نمونه‌ای به عنوان آخرین راهکار برای حفظ گونه‌ها در خارج از زیستگاه‌های اصلی و مناطق حفاظت شده است. حوضه‌آبخیز پردیس دانشگاه اراک با مساحتی برابر 65/624 هکتار واقع در دامنه جنوب‌غربی کوه مودر، در شمال‌غربی شهر اراک و شمال منطقه کرهرود قرار دارد. متغییرهای ارزیابی زیستگاه بز وحشی، گوسفند وحشی و آهو شامل: ارتفاع، شیب، جهت، اقلیم (بارندگی و دما)، فاصله از کاربری‌های انسان‌ساخت، کاربری اراضی، فاصله از جاده‌ها، فاصله از منابع آب (چشمه و آبراهه)، شاخص پوشش گیاهی (NDVI). و از مدل ‌‌ساز HBM، زیر مدلMCE و روش وزن‌دهی FAHP در نرم‌افزار IDRISI TerrSet 18.31 استفاده شد. ظرفیت برد تغذیه‌ای زیستگاه برای دوره بحرانی 90 روزه با استفاده از رابطه‌ها رلو تعیین شد. نتایج ارزیابی زیستگاه نشان می‌‌‌دهد زیستگاه مطلوب برای گوسفند وحشی، آهوی ایرانی و بز وحشی به ترتیب 78/41 درصد (261 هکتار)، 11/37 درصد (84/231 هکتار) و 63/23 درصد (62/147 هکتار) است. ظرفیت برد تغذیه‌ای به ترتیب برای آهوی ایرانی 14 واحد، بز وحشی 74/6 واحد و گوسفند وحشی 9/5 واحد است. به طورکلی ظرفیت برد تغذیه‌ای منطقه برای هر سه گونه 64/26 واحد است. رویکرد حفاظتی برای گوسفند وحشی، آهوی ایرانی و بز وحشی به ترتیب برنامه معرفی مجدد و برنامه معرفی در منطقه حوضه‌آبخیز دانشگاه اراک توصیه می‌‌‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Habitat Evaluation and Nutritional Carrying Capacity of Species (Wild Goats, Wild Sheep and Iranian Gazella) in the Watershed of Arak University

نویسنده [English]

  • Amir Ansari
Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture and Environment, Arak University, Arak, Iran
چکیده [English]

The world's mammals condition are concerned because habitat degradation and high hunting. Wildlife captive breeding centers are examples of the last resort for conservation of species in outside of the main habitats and protected areas. The Watershed of Arak University with a total area of 625.65 hectares is located on the southwestern aspect of Mount Modar, northwest of Arak city and north of Karahrod city. Habitat evaluation variables of species (wild goats, wild sheep and iranian gazella) including: height, slope, aspect, climate (rainfall and temperature), distance from human uses, land use, distance from roads, distance from water sources (springs and rivers), vegetation index (NDVI). And the HBM modeler and the sub-MCE model and FAHP weighting method used in the IDRISI TerrSet18.31 software. The nutritional carrying capacity is determined using the Harlow formula for critical period of the 90-day. The results of habitat evaluation showed that, the suitable habitat for wild sheep, Iranian gazelle and wild goat are 41.78 % (261 hectares), 11.11% (231.8 hectares) and 23.63% (147.62 hectares), respectively. The nutritional carrying capacity for Iranian gazelle, wild goat and wild sheep are 14 unit, 6.74 unit and 5.9 unit, respectively. Generally, nutritional carrying capacity of area for all three species are 26.64 unit. Protective approach recommended for wild sheep, iranian gazella and wild goat are reintroduction and introduction programs, respectively in the Watershed of Arak University.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Habitat Evaluation
  • Nutritional carrying capacity
  • Watershed
  • Arak University
  • Habitat and Biodiversity Modeler (HBM)
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