بررسی آلودگی محیط‌زیستی فلزات سنگین و تعیین شاخص‌های محیط‌زیستی در گرد و غبار خیابانی شهر اهواز

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته دکتری زمین شناسی اقتصادی، گروه زمین شناسی، دانشکده علوم زمین، دنشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، ایران

2 استادیار گروه معماری، دانشکده و پژوهشکده پدافند غیر عامل، دانشگاه جامع امام حسین (ع)، ایران

چکیده

هدف از این مطالعه، شناسایی و ارزیابی آلودگی فلزات سنگین موجود در گردوغبار خیابانی شهر اهواز است. شهر اهواز دارای آلودگی‌‌های زمین‌‌زاد، ترافیک سنگین، صنایع، احتراق نفت و گاز، و فعالیت‌‌های نفتی می‌‌باشد. بنابراین، ارزیابی تاثیرات محیط‌زیستی در این شهر حایز اهمیت است. برای تعیین منشا احتمالی فلزات آلاینده، از آنالیزهای چند متغیره مانند آنالیز خوشه‌‌ای (CA) و تحلیل مولفه‌‌‌های اصلی (PCA) استفاده شد. همچنین، فاکتورهایی مانند فاکتور غنی‌‌شدگی (EF)، شاخص آلودگی(PI)، شاخص آلودگی یکنواخت (IPI) و شاخص زمین انباشت (Igeo) برای تعیین درجه آلودگی فلزات سنگین در گرد و غبار خیابانی شهر اهواز ارزیابی شدند. نتایج نشان داد که میانگین غلظت Pb، Zn، Cu، Cd، As،Ni  و V در گرد و غبار خیابانی به ترتیب 59، 220، 78، 3/0، 3/3، 40 و 46 میلی‌‌گرم بر کیلوگرم است. نتایج حاصل از PCA و CA نشان داد که منطقه بیشتر تحت تاثیر ترافیک‌‌سنگین، آلودگی‌‌های نفتی و فعالیت‌‌های صنعتی قرار دارد. میانگین فاکتور غنی‌‌شدگی و شاخص زمین انباشت در نمونه‌‌ها به صورت V˂Ni˂Cd˂As˂Cu˂Zn˂Pb کاهش می‌‌یابد. شاخص آلودگی نشان‌دهنده سطح بالای آلودگی بعضی نمونه‌‌ها به Pb، Zn و Cu و سطح متوسط تا کم آلودگی سایر نمونه‌‌ها به As،Ni ،Cd و V است. طبق تحلیل‌‌های صورت گرفته روی نمونه‌‌های گرد و غبار خیابانی، ظاهرا منشا فلزات Pb، Cu ، Zn و Ni، انسانی بوده و فلزات Cd و As نیز تا حدودی تحت تاثیر فعالیت‌‌های انسانی قرار گرفته‌‌اند، در حالی که فلزات V و Ti منشا کاملا طبیعی دارند. طبقه‌‌بندی میزان آلودگی در گردوغبار خیابانی شهر اهواز به ترتیب زیر است: .PI≈IPI>EF>Igeo

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Environmental Investigation of Heavy Metals Concentration and Determination of Geo-Environmental Factors in Ahvaz city Street Dust

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mansour Adelpour 1
  • Parviz Rafati 2
1 Graduated Ph.D of Economic Geology, Department of Geology, College of Earth sciences, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz (SCU), Ahvaz, Iran
2 Assist. Profe. of Architecture, Imam Hossein University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

The purpose of this study was to determine heavy metals contamination in the street dusts of Ahvaz. Ahvaz city contains geogenic pollutants, heavy traffic, industries, oil and gas combustion and oil activities, which make it important from the viewpoint of environmental impact assessment. To determine the possible source of the heavy metals, multivariate analysis such as cluster analysis (CA) and principal components analysis (PCA) were used. Also, factors such as the Index of Enrichment Factor (EF), Pollution Index (PI), Integration Pollution Index (IPI) and Geo-accumulation (Igeo) were assessed to determine the degree of heavy metals pollution in street dust of the Ahvaz city. The results showed that the average concentrations of Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, As, Ni and V in the street dust samples were 59, 220, 78, 0.3, 3.3, 40 and 46 mg/kg, respectively. The results of PCA and CA indicated that the region is mostly affected by heavy traffic, oil pollution and industrial activities. The average values of EF and Igeo in the samples decreased as V˂Ni˂Cd˂As˂Cu˂Zn˂Pb. PI revealed high levels of Pb, Zn and Cu pollution in samples and the moderate to low level of As, Ni, Cd and V pollution in other samples.Based on the obtained results, it seems the high concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn and Ni and to a lesser extent Cd and As concentrations in the street dust samples was derived from anthropogenic activities; whereas the concentration of V and Ti has been mostly affected by natural sources. The classification of pollution in street dust in Ahvaz is as follows: IPI>EF> Igeo ≈ PI.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Environmental investigation
  • heavy metals
  • Street dust
  • Ahvaz
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