کاربرد شاخص لکه‌های داغ در تحلیل تغییرات مکانی فلزات سنگین در تالاب بین‌المللی انزلی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناسی ارشدآلودگی‌های محیط زیست، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه صنعتی اصفهان، ایران

2 دکترای تولید و بهره برداری، دانشکده شیلات و محیط زیست، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، ایران

3 دانشیارگروه تولید و بهره برداری آبزیان، دانشکده شیلات و محیط زیست، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، ایران

چکیده

آگاهی از پراکندگی مکانی فلزات سنگین، امکان برنامه‌‌‌ریزی و سیاستگذاری‌های مناسب محیط‌زیستی را فراهم می‌‌‌نماید. این مطالعه با هدف پایش وضعیت آلودگی فلزات ‌‌سنگین تالاب بین‌‌المللی انزلی با استفاده از سیستم اطلاعات جغرافیایی و آمار فضایی انجام شد. نمونه‌‌برداری ‌‌آب در 10 ایستگاه در سال 1393 صورت گرفت. برای ارزیابی فضایی توزیع، تراکم‌، پهنه‌بندی و الگوی پراکنش از روش درون‌‌‌یابی، تابع ‌‌کرنل، آزمون موران و شاخص لکه‌های داغ در محیط GIS استفاده شد. نقشه‌های پهنه‌‌بندی حاصل از تخمین ‌‌تراکم نشان‌دهنده افزایش تراکم سرب و نیکل از سمت غرب به شرق تالاب انزلی بود. براساس آزمون موران و شاخص جی ‌‌استار (GI*) ‌‌فلزات سنگین مورد مطالعه دارای خود همبستگی فضایی و الگوی پراکنش فلزات به صورت‌ خوشه‌‌‌ای ‌است که نشان‌دهنده تجمع و نزدیکی مناطق ‌‌آلوده دارای تراکم بالا در مجاورت یکدیگر است. بر این اساس بیشترین لکه‌های ‌‌داغ کادمیوم و نیکل متعلق به نواحی شمالی تالاب (زیر پل بندر ‌‌انزلی)، روی و سرب در قسمت شرقی متمرکز بود و الگوی خوشه‌ای بالا را تشکیل می‌‌‌دهند یا به عبارتی در این نواحی فلزات سنگین از الگوی خود همبستگی مکانی مثبت تبعیت می‌‌‌کنند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Application of Hot Spots Index in the Analysis of Spatial Variations of Heavy Metals in Anzali International Wetland

نویسندگان [English]

  • Maryam Fallah 1
  • Ahmadreza Pirali 2
  • Aliakbar Hedayati 3
1 M. Sc. Department of Natural Resources, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan
2 Ph.D., Department of Aquatics Production and Exploitation, Faculty of Fisheries and Environmental Sciences, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan
3 Associate Prof., Department of Aquatics Production and Exploitation, Faculty of Fisheries and Environmental Sciences, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan
چکیده [English]

Awareness on spatial dispersion of heavy metals allows for planning of appropriate environmental policies. This study aims to monitor the pollution of heavy metals in Anzali International Wetland using GIS and spatial statistics. Sampling of water was done at 10 stations in 2014. The spatial distribution, density, zoning and distribution pattern were used in GIS for interpolation method, kernel function, Moron test, and hot spots index. The zoning maps derived from the density estimates indicated an increase in lead and nickel concentrations from west to east of Anzali Wetland. Based on the moron test and the GI* index, spatial correlation and spherical distribution pattern of heavy metals cluster indicate the accumulation and proximity of high density contaminated areas adjacent to each other. Accordingly, the highest hot spot of cadmium and nickel belongs to the northern parts of the wetland (under the bridge of Anzali port), zinc and lead were in the eastern part, and form the high cluster pattern, it could conclude that in these regions, heavy metal have been shown the positive self-correlation pattern.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • heavy metals
  • Moran test
  • Hot spots index
  • Anzali wetland
Alloway, B.J. 1995. Soil Pollution and Land Contamination, in Pollution: causes, Effects and Controlled, R. M, Harrison. Cambridge: The Royal Society of Chemistry, 318pp.
Asgari, A. 2011. Space Statistics Analysis with ArcGIS, Tehran Municipality Information & Communication Technology Organization Press. (In Persian)
APHA. 1992. Standard method for examination of water and wastewater.18 the edition. American.
Arhami, M.; Hosseini, V.; Shahne, M. Z.; Bigdeli, M.; Lai A. & Schauer, J. J. 2017. Seasonal trends, chemical speciation and source apportionment of fine PM in Tehran. Atmospheric Environment; 153:70-82.
Anselin, L. 1992. Spatial data analysis with GIS: an introduction to application in the social sciences, National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, Technical Report, 10- 92.
Balakrishnan, A.; Ramu, A. & Murugesan, A. 2013. Spatial distribution of heavy metal concentration in groundwater in and around Palk Strait Sea shore area using GIS techniques. International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology. 2(12): 7650-7656.
Besharati, N. 2006. Threats to the health of wetland environmental hazards caused by pollutants. South Medical (Bulletin National Congress of medicine and sea) 4:76-86. (In Persian)
Brenner, A. & Hoekstra, E. J. 2012. Drinking water quality standards and regulations. Best Practice Guide on Metals Removal from Drinking Water by Treatment: chapter 1:4, 5.
Cliff, A. D. & Ord, J. K. 1981. Spatial processes: models & applications, No 44, London.
Chandrasekaran, A.; Mukesh, M.V.; Anantharaman, P.; Tamilselvi, M.; Muthukumarasamy, R.; Manivel, T. & Rajmohan, R. 2013. Trace Metal Concentration in Sediments of Tamirabarani River in relationships with physico chemical characteristics -a study using GIS application. International Journal of Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering. 3(2): 9-15.
Dogru, A. O.; David, R.M.; Ulugtekin, N.; Goksel, C.; Seker, DZ. & Sözen, S. 2017. GIS based spatial pattern analysis: Children with Hepatitis A in Turkey. Environmental Research; 156:349.
Esmaeili Sari, A. 2002.Pollutants, Health and Standard in the environment, Press The role of Mehr.767pp. (In Persian)
Getis, A. & Ord, J.K. 1992. The analysis of spatial association by use of distance statistics. Geographical Analysis. 24 (3):189-206.
Jalali Jafari, B. & Aghazadeh Meshgi, M. 2005. Fish poisoning due to heavy metals in water and its importance in public health, Man Press, 138 pp. (In Persian)
Jalali, M. & Kamarian, V. 2018. The Analysis of Spatial Patterns of Thunderstorms in the North West of Iran, Journal of geographic space 61: 63-81. (In Persian)
Khodaparast, H. 2002.Anzali lagoon fisheries studies, Department of Fisheries Gilan, carrying out: Fisheries Research Center of Gilan.204pp. (In Persian)
Khodaparast, H. 2007. Investigation of oil hydrocarbons in floating sites in Anzali Wetland and Coasts in a Caspian Sea (Guilan Province), Guilan Provincial Environment Office.89pp. (In Persian)
Khosravi, Y.; Heidari, M.; Tavakoli, A. & Zamani, A. 2017. Analyzing of the Relationship Between Land Surface Temperature Temporal Changes and Spatial Pattern of Land Use changes, Journal of spatial planning 21(3): 119-144. (In Persian)
Khosravi, Y.; Zamani, A.A.; Parizanganeh, A.H. & Yaftian, M.R. 2018. Assessment of spatial distribution pattern of heavy metals surrounding a lead and zinc production plant in Zanjan Province, Iran. Geoderma Regional. 12: 10-17.
Lee, S. I. 2000. Developin a Bivariate Spatial Association an Integration of Pearson's r and Moran's I, Journal of Geographical Systems, No. 3: 369-385.
McGrath, D.; Zhang, C. & Carton, O. T. 2004. Geostatistical analyses and hazard assessment on soil lead in Silvermines area, Ireland. Environmental Pollution, 127, 239−248.
Mirroshandel, M. & Abdous, A. 2013.Monitoring the level of ten heavy metal in 24 points of water and surface sediments of Anzali wetland, The 1th Conference and Exihibition on Environment Energy and Clean Industry, 14pp. (In Persian)
Papastergiadou, E. S.; Retalis, A. Apostolakis, A. & Georgiadis, T. 2008, Environmental monitoring of Spatio-temporal changes using remote sensing and GIS in a Mediterranean wetland of northern Greece, Water Resources management, Vol. 112, pp. 259-273.
Paydar, M.; Sharif Fazeli, M. & Riahi, AR. 2003. Determination of Heavy Metals Content in Astacus Leptodactylus Caspicus in Anzali Lagoon. Iranian Scientific Fisheries Journal, 12(2): 1-14. (In Persian)
Prange, J.A. & Dennison, W.C. 2000. Physiological responses of five sea grass species to trace metals. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 4: 327-336.
Rahnama, M.R. & Zabihi, G. 2011. Analysis of the Distribution of Urban Public Facilities for Spatial Justice with Mashhad's Integrated Access Model, Geography and development Iranian journal 23: 5-21. (In Persian)
Rauret, G.; LoopezSanchez, J.F.; Sauquillo, A.; Rubio, R.; Davidson, C.; Ure, A. & Quevauviller, PH. 1999. Improvement of the BCR three step sequential extraction procedure prior to the cortication of new sediment and soil reference materials. Journal of Environmental Monitoring; 1: 57-61.
Romic, M.; Hengl, T.; Romic, D. & Husnjak, S. 2007. Representing soil pollution by heavy metals using continuous limitation scores, Computers & Geosciences, Vol. 33, No. 10, pp. 1316-1326.
Sadeghi Nia, A.; Alijani, B. Ziaeian, P. & Khaledi, SH. 2013. Application of spatial self-correlation techniques in the analysis of thermal island of Tehran, Journal of applied researches in geographical sciences 30: 67-90. (In Persian)
Salahi, P. & Faridpour, M. 2016. Spatial analysis of climatic drought in North West of Iran using spatial autocorrelation statistics, Journal of spatial analysis environmental hazards 3(3):1-20. (In Persian)
Selvam, S.; Venkatramanan, S. & Singaraja, C. 2015. A GIS-based assessment of water quality Pollution indices for heavy metal contamination in Tuticorin Corporation, Tamilnadu, India. Arabian Journal of Geosciences. 8(12): 10611-10623.
Sertaj, M.; Fatollahi, F. & Filizadeh, Y. 2005. An investigation of the evolution of distribution and accumulation of heavy metals (Cr,Ni,Cd,Zn,Pb)in Anzali Wetland,s Sediment,Iranian Journal of Natural Resources, 58(3):623-634. (In Persian)
Wang, Y.; Chen, P. ;Cui, R. Si, W.; Zhang, Y. & Ji, W. 2010.Heavy metal concentrations in water, sediment, and tissues of two fish species (Triplohysa pappenheimi, Gobio hwanghensis) from the Lanzhou section of the Yellow River, China. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment; 165(1-4):97-102.
Water Supply Authority. 2002. Surface Water Quality and Pollutant Loadings: A Technical Report for the Raritan Basin Watershed Management Project, New Jersey, 86pp.
Yamada, I. & Thill, J. C. 2007. Local indicators of network constrained clusters in spatial point patterns. Geographical Analysis, 39(3), 268-292.
Yang, H.; Shen, Z.; Zhu, S. & Wang, W. 2008. Heavy metals in wetland plants and soil of Lake Taihu, China. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry; 27(1):38-42.
Yuan, Y.; Cave, M. & Zhang, C. 2018. Using Local Moran's, I to identify contamination hotspots of rare earth elements in urban soils of London. Applied Geochemistry 88: 167-178.
Zhang, C.; Luo, L.; Xu, W. & Ledwith, V. 2008.Use of local Moran's I and GIS to identify pollution hotspots of Pp in urban soils of Galway, Ireland Science of the Total Environment; 398(1):212-21.