عنوان مقاله [English]
Socio- Economic Differences Among Countries and Its Impact on Ecological Footprint (Comparison Relationship Between Ecological Footprints to GDP in Selected Countries of World)
1Aalipour, M.; 2*Pourasghar Sangachin, F.; 3Foroug, S.
1 Ph.D. Student of Environment‑Environmental Assessment & spatial Planning,
Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Iran
2 Ph.D. Environmental Planning Graduated Faculty of Environment, University of Tehran, Iran
3 M.Sc. Computer Engineering- Software, Islamic Azad University, Ardabil Branch, Ardabil, Iran
(Received: 2017/03/10; Accepted: 2018/10/02)
The global economy is overtaking the Earth, which is beyond the capacity to be supported, and every day this gap is even more. The world in the middle of the second decade of third millennium puts more pressure on Earth systems and every day this pressure on natural resources and environment is widening. Recently, the issue of environmental protection has been one of the major problems in the international communities receiving the international attention. Human beings come to the realization that production and consumption patterns in the world has long been advocated by Western societies and is the Mirage. However, it is not possible to use resources used by rich countries compared with developing countries in any way, because such ways could lead to the collapse of biological systems. In this study, we first examined the concept of ecological footprint, and then determined the relationship between the ecological footprint and revenues, information on the ecological footprint and revenue extracted from a number of countries and explained the relationship and correlation among them. The study showed that developed countries have more deleterious effects on biological systems and environmental sustainability and should undertake more responsibilities in the context of sustainable development (Rio Declaration principle of common).
Keywords: Sustainable development, Sustainable development indicators, Ecological footprint, Per capita income.
*Corresponding author: Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Barrett, J.C. & Birch, R. 2001. Exploring the Application of the Ecological Footprint to Sustainable Consumption Policy: University of York.
Brown, L.R. 2001. Eco-Economy. . W. W. Norton Company. 224 pp.
Cheal ryu, H. 2005. Modeling the per Capita Ecological Footprint for Dallas County, Texas: Examining Demographic, Environmental value, Land-Use, and Spatial (Msc Dissertation). University of Texas.
Gharakhluo, M.; Hataminezhad, H.; Baghvand, A. & Yalve, M. 2013. Urban Sustainable Development Assessment with Regard to Footprint Ecological Method (Case Study: Kermanshah City). Human Geography Research. 45 (2): 105-120. (In Persian).
Harris, F. 2004. Global Environmental Issues. Australia: John Willy and sons.
Jomepour, M.; Hataminehad, H. & Shahnavaz, S. 2013. An Investigation on Sustainable Development in Rasht County Using Ecological Footprint. Human Geography Research Quarterly. 45(3):191-208. (In Persian).
Living Planet Report. 2014. Species and Spaces, people and Places.WWF. 180 pp.
Meadows, D.H.; Meadows, D.L.; Randers, J. & Behrens, W.W. 1972. The limits to growth: A report for the club of rome’s project on the predicament of mankind. Universe Books. New York.
Meadows, D.H. 1998. Indicators and Information Systems for sustainable development. U.S.A: The sustainability Institue, Hartland Four corners.
Moffat, I. 2000. Ecological Footprints and Sustainable Development. Ecological Economics. 32: 359-362.
Moosakazemi Mohammadi, S.M. 2001. Urban Sustainable Development: Concepts and Prespectives. Geographical Research. 16 (62): 94-113. (In Persian).
Parker, P. 1998. An environmental measure of Japan’s economic development: the ecological footprint. Geographiche Zeitschirft. 86: 106-119.
Pourasghar, F.; Salehi, E. & Masnavi, M.R. 2011. An Analytical- Comparative Study on Measurement Methods of Sustainable Development. Environmental Research. 1 (1): 67-82. (In Persian).
Pulselli, M.F.; Bastianoni, B.; Marchettini, B. & Tiezzi, E. 2008. The Road to Sustainability and Future Generations. Italy: Published by WIT press.
Rees, W. E. 1992. Ecological footprint and appropriated carrying capacity: what urban economics leave out?. Environment Urban. 4(2): 120-130.
Samadpour, P. & Faryadi, SH. 2008. Determination of Ecological Footprints of Dense and High-Rise Districts, Case Study of Elahie Neighborhood, Tehran. Journal of Environmental Studies. 34 (45):63-72. (In Persian).
Singh, R.K.; Murty, H. R.; Gupta, s. K. & Dikshit, A. K. 2008. An Overview of Sustainablity Assessment methodologies. Ecological Indicator. 15: 281-299.
Saraei, M.H. & Zareei, A. 2011. Study of Ecological Capital with EF Index: Case Study, Iran. Geoghraphy and Environmental planning. 22(1): 97-106.
Van Vuuren, D. P. & Smeets, E. M. W. 2000. Ecological footprints of Benin, Bhutan, Costa Rica and the Netherlands. Ecological Economics, 34: 115-130.
Wackernagel, M. & Rees, W. 1996. Our Ecological Footprint, Reducing human Impact on The Earth. Philadelphia: New Society Publishers, Gabriola Island.
World Bank. 2012. World Development Indicators.