زون‌‌بندی منطقه حفاظت شده اشترانکوه با استفاده از ارزیابی چندمعیاره و الگوریتم خوشه‌‌بندی K-MEANS

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 آمایش سرزمین، پژوهشکده علوم محیطی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران

2 گروه آمایش سرزمین، پژوهشکده علوم محیطی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران

چکیده

زون‌‌بندی مناطق حفاظت شده رویکردی است که می‌‌تواند با تخصیص مناطق به واحدهای مدیریتی و کاربری اراضی تعارضات میان فعالیت‌‌های انسانی و حفاظتی را کاهش دهد. مطالعه حاضر با استفاده از روش‌‌های مبتنی بر سامانه‌‌های اطلاعات جغرافیایی و ارزیابی چندمعیاره به زون‌‌بندی منطقه حفاظت شده اشترانکوه می‌‌پردازد که بدین منظور ابتدا زون‌‌های موجود در منطقه شناسایی و برای هر یک از این زون‌‌ها با استفاده از ترکیب خطی وزن‌‌دار نقشه‌‌ای تهیه شد. نقشه‌‌های به دست آمده در این مرحله شامل نقشه اهداف حفاظتی، تفرجی و توسعه هستند که هر کدام از این نقشه‌‌های مطلوبیت با استفاده از لایه‌‌های مرتبط با این اهداف و با استفاده از مجموعه‌‌های فازی ایجاد شدند. در نهایت این سه نقشه مطلوبیت با یکدیگر تلفیق و نقشه نهایی با استفاده از الگوریتم خوشه‌‌بندی K-MEANS به طبقات مورد نظر تقسیم شد. نتایج حاصل از این تجزیه و تحلیل نشان داد که رویکرد به کار رفته در این مطالعه می‌‌تواند به خوبی زون‌‌های موردنظر را شناسایی و تفکیک نماید. همچنین نتایج نشان دادند که 75 درصد منطقه به زون‌‌های امن و حفاظتی اختصاص دارد و پهنه‌‌های انتخاب شده برای این زون‌‌ها پیوستگی و نزدیکی بالایی به یکدیگر دارند که این امر مدیریت این مناطق را آسان‌‌تر می‌‌نماید. زون‌‌های تفرج گسترده، متمرکز و زون احیا و بازسازی به ترتیب 15، 3 و 7 درصد از مساحت منطقه را به خود اختصاص داده‌‌اند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Zoning of Oshtrankou Protected Area Using Multi-criteria Evaluation and K-MEANS Clustering Algorithm

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ehsan Rahimi 1
  • shahindokht Barghjelveh 2
1 Environmental Sciences, Environmental Research institute, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran
2 Environmental Sciences, Environmental Research institute, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran
چکیده [English]

Zoning of protected areas is an approach that can reduce conflicts between human and conservation activities by allocating areas to land management and land use units. The present study uses methods based on GIS and multi-criteria evaluation to zoning the protected area of Oshtrankooh. For this purpose, first, the existing zones in the area are identified, and for each of these zones and using a weighted linear combination, a map was prepared. The maps obtained in this step include the map of conservation, recreation, and development goals, each of which was created using layers related to these goals and using fuzzy sets. Finally, these three utility maps were combined and the final map was divided into desired classes using the K-MEANS clustering algorithm. The results of this analysis showed that the approach used in this study can well identify and differentiate the desired zones. The results also showed that 75% of the area is dedicated to safe and protection zones, the areas selected for these zones are highly connected and close to each other, which makes the management of these areas easier. Extensive, concentrated recreation zones and rehabilitation zones occupy 15, 3, and 7% of the area, respectively.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Zoning
  • Oshtrankooh Protected Area
  • Multi-Criteria evaluation
  • K-means clustering algorithm
Abbasi, S.; Hosseini, M. Pilehvar, B. & Zare, H. 2009. The effect of conservation on biodiversity of wood species in Oshtrankooh region of Lorestan. Iranian Forest Magazine. No. 1. 1-10.
Allendorf, T.D.; Smith, J.L. & Anderson, D. H. 2007. Residents’ perceptions of Royal Bardia National Park, Nepal. Landscape and Urban Planning, 82, 33–40.
Ameri, A. 2007. Zoning of Sepehr Turan Biosphere Reserve. Journal of Environmental Science. No. 43. 13-20.
Ardakani, T; Danehkar, A; Karami, M.; Aghili, H. Rafiee, G, &Erfani, M. 2011. Chabahar Bay zoning using multivariate decision-making model for centralized leisure use. Quarterly Journal of Geography and Land use planning. 1,1- 20.
Bayat, H. Mgnonian, H, 1988 Atlas of Oshtrankooh protected area. Environmental Protection organization Publications.
Briceno-Elizondo, E.; Jäger, D.; Lexer, M.; Garcia-Gonzalo, J.; Peltola, H. & Kellomäki, S. 2008. Multi-criteria evaluation of multi-purpose stand treatment programmes for Finnish boreal forests under changing climate. Ecological Indicators, 8, 26–45.
Danehkar, A. Asadolahi, Z, Alizadeh, A. & Javanshir, A. 2012. Nature-based tourism planning in Choghakhor wetland using multi-criteria spatial evaluation. Natural environment. Volume 65. Number 1. 53-66.
Darwish, M. & Shekoee, M. 2005. Integrated report and compilation of management plan of Oshtrankooh protected area. Studies and preparation of management plan of Oshtrankooh protected area. Environmental Protection Agency, Takom Consulting Engineers. Volume 15 240 p.
Dehdar Dargahi, M. & Makhdoom, M. 2002. Zoning of Golestan National Park. Journal of Environmental Issue. 29. 71 -77.
Dehdar Dargahi, M. Karami, M. & Makhdoum, M. 2006. Zonning Deyleman and Dorfak protected area using GIS. Journal of Environmental studies. 33. 1 -12
Diaz-Balteiro, L. & Romero, C. 2008. Making forestry decision with multiple criteria: A review and an assessment. Forest Ecology & Management, 255, 3222–3241.
Dudley, N. 2008. Guidelines for applying protected area management categories. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN.
Erfani, M; Ardakani, T.; Sadeghi, A. & Pahlavanroi, A. 2011. Location for centralized recreation in Chah Nimeh area (Zabol city) using multi-criteria decision-making system. Environmental research. No. 4. 41- 50.
Eastman, R.J. & Jiang, H. 1996. Fuzzy measures in multi-criteria evaluation, proceedings, 2nd. International Symposium on Spatial Accuracy Assessment in Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, May 21-23, Fort Collins, Colorado, 527-534.
Eastman, R.J. 2001. IDRISI 32: Guide to GIS and image processing. Worcester: Clark Labs, Clark University.
Eastman. R.J. 2003. Idrisi 32, Release 2. Toforil. Clark University, USA. 237. PP.
Eastman. R.J. 2006. IDRISI Andes, Guide to GIS and image processing. Clark University, Worcester, Pp 87-131.
Farashi, A.; Naderi, M. & Parvian, M. 2016. Identifying a preservation zone using multi–criteria decision analysis. Animal Biodiversity and Conservation 39.1.
Forman, R.T.T. & Collinge, S.K. 1997. Nature conserved in changing landscapes with and without spatial planning. Landscape Urban Planning, 37, 129–135.
Furze, B.; de Lacy, T. & Birckhead, J. 1996. Culture, conservation, and biodiversity. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
Jafari, H. Onagh, A.2005. Zoning of Geno Protected Area using GIS. Ecology. No. 38. 36- 39.
Hadadionia, S; Danehkar; A, Eshghi, K, Darwishsefat, A.A. & Kaboli, M. 2014. Nature-Based Tourism Zoning Based on Environmental Criteria: A Case Study of Khatam County, Yazd Province. Natural environment. 3, 285-300.
Hjortso, C.N.; Strade, S. & Helles, F. 2006. Applying multi-criteria decision-making to protected areas and buffer zone management: A case study in the Royal Chitwan National Park, Nepal. Journal of Forest Economics, 12, 91–108.
Hough, J.L. & Sherpa, M.N. 1989. Bottom up vs. basic needs – Integrating conservation and development in the Annapurna and Michiru Mountain conservation areas of Nepal and Malawi. Ambio, 18, 434–441.
Hull, V.; Xu, W.; Liu, W.; Zhou, S.; Vina, A. & Zhang, J. 2011. Evaluating the efficacy of zoning designations for protected area management. Biological Conservation, 144, 3028–3037.
Ghadimi, M.; Hosseini, M.; Pourqasemi, H.R. & Moradi, H.R. 2010. Protective modeling of Manesht and Qalarang protected area using fuzzy logic. Environmental Science Eighth Year, First Issue. 85 -106.
Ghalibaf. M. &Shabani, F. 2011. Evaluation and Prioritization of Tourist Attractions for Urban Tourism Development Based on Multivariate Decision Making Models (Case Study: Sanandaj City). Geographical research. No. 2. 147- 172.
Geneletti, D. & van Duren, I. 2008. Protected area zoning for conservation and use: A combination of spatial multi-criteria and multi-objective evaluation. Landscape and Urban Planning, 85, 97–110
Kramer, R.A. & van Schaik, C.P. 1997. Preservation paradigms and tropical rain forests. In R. Kramer, C. van Schaik, & J. Johnson (Eds.), Last stand: Protected areas and the defense of tropical biodiversity pp. 3–14. New York: Oxford University Press.
Leitão, A. B.; Miller, J.; Ahern. J. & McGarigal, K. 2012. Measuring landscapes: A planner's handbook. Island press.
Makhdoom, M. 1997. Management of six forest sub-basins of Fars province a guide for strategic planning of Zagros. Journal of Environmental. 19, 12-21.
Makhdoom, M. 2011. The foundation of land use planing. University of Tehran Press. No. 2203.
Makhdoom, M. & Darwishsefat, a. 2001. Evaluation and planning with GIS. University of Tehran Press. No. 2543.
Malczewski, J. 1999. GIS and multi-criteria decision analysis. New York: John Wiley
Massam, B. H. 1988. Multi-criteria decision making techniques in planning. Progress in Planning, 30, 1–84.
McNeely, J.A. & Miller, K.R. 1984. National parks, conservation and development: The role of protected areas in sustaining society. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institute Press.
Nagendra, H.; Pareed, S. & Ghate, R. 2006. People within parks – Forest villages, land-cover change and landscape fragmentation in the Tadoba Andhari Tiger Reserve, India. Applied Geography, 26, 96–112.
Najmizadeh, S. 2005. Assessing the environmental potential of Khabar National Park for zoning and planning with the help of GIS. Journal of Environmental Issue No. 38.
Newmark, W.D.; Leonard, N.L.; Sariko, H.I. & Gamassa, D.G. 1993. Conservation attitudes of local people living adjacent to 5 protected areas in Tanzania. Biological Conservation, 63, 177–183.
Ohadi, S.; Dorbeiki, M. & Bahmanpour, H. 2013. Ecotourism Zoning In Protected Areas Using Gis. Advances in Environmental Biology. 7(4): 677-683.
Phua, M. & Minowa, M. 2005. A GIS-based multi-criteria decision making approach to forest conservation planning at a landscape scale: A case study in the Kinabalu Area, Sabah, Malaysia. Landscape and Urban Planning, 71, 207–222.
Pressey, R.L.; Cabeza, M.; Watts, M.E.; Cowling, R.M. & Wilson, K. A. 2007. Conservation planning in a changing world. TRENDS in Ecology and Evolution, 22(11), 583–592.
Saaty, T. L. 2008. Decision making with the analytic hierarchy process. International Journal of Services Sciences,1(1), 83-98.
Sabatini, M. C.; Verdiell, A.; Rodriguez, I.R.M. & Vidal, M. 2007. A quantitative method for zoning of protected areas and its spatial ecological implications. Journal of Environment Management, 83(2), 198–206.
Salman Mahini, A. & Gholamalifard, M. 2006. Siting MSW landfills with a weighted linear combination methodology in a GIS environment. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 3(4), 435-445.
Salmanmahiny A.R. and Kamyab, H.R. 2011. Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems with Idrisi Software. Second edition, Mehr Mahdis Publications.
Sepasi, Y.; Danehkar, A. Alizadeh, A. Darwishsefat, A.A. & Sharifipour, R. 2010. Hengam Island Environmental Planning for Conservation and Tourism with Multi-Spatial Evaluation. Natural environment. Volume 63. Number 2. 159- 172.
Store, R. 2009. Sustainable locating of different forest uses. Land Use Policy, 26, 610–618.
Thill, J.C. 1999. Multi-criteria decision-making and analysis: A geographic information sciences approach. New York: Ashgate.
Valente, R.de O. A. & Vettorazzi, C.A. 2008. Definition of priority areas for forest conservation through the ordered weighted averaging method. Forest Ecology and Management, 256, 1408–1417.
Walther, P. 1986. The meaning of zoning in the management of natural resource lands. Journal of Environmental Management, 22, 331–344
Zhang, Z.; Sherman, R.; Yang, Z.; Wu, R.; Wang, W.; Yin, M.; Yang, G. & Ou, X. 2013. Integrating a participatory process with a GIS-based multi-criteria decision analysis for protected area zoning in China. Nature Conservation 21: 225– 240
Zucca, A.; Sharifi, A.M. & Fabbri, A.G. 2008. Application of spatial multi-criteria analysis to site selection for a local park: A case study in the Bergamo Province, Italy. Journal of Environmental Management, 88, 752–769.