ارزیابی آسیب‌پذیری مانگروها نسبت به بالا آمدن سطح آب دریا

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه شهرکرد

چکیده

به‌طورکلی، بررسی آسیب‌پذیری مانگروها نسبت به بالا رفتن سطح آب دریا و دیگر عواقب ناشی از تغییر اقلیم، نقش مهمی را در ارایه راهکارهای مدیریتی و توانمندسازی این اکوسیستم‌ها جهت به حداقل رساندن و جبران خسارت‌های پیش‌بینی شده ایفا می‌کند. بنابراین، هدف این مطالعه نیز ارزیابی آسیب‌پذیری‌ مانگروهای استان هرمزگان نسبت به بالا آمدن سطح آب دریا است. بدین منظور از تصاویر ماهواره‌ای مربوط به سال‌های 1986، 1998 و 2016 و نقشه‌های رقومی ارتفاع و پراکنش سازه‌ها، تاسیسات و مراکز صنعتی و جمعیتی واقع در ناحیه پسکرانه مربوط به حوزه‌های رویشگاهی خمیر، تیاب و جاسک استفاده شد. با در اختیار داشتن نقشه NDVI و نیز تهیه نقشه ترکیب رنگی کاذب، طبقه‌بندی نظارت شده برای تمامی تصاویر انجام شد و با استفاده از نقشه رقومی ارتفاع استان هرمزگان، نقشه شیب ناحیه پسکرانه در دو طبقه کمتر و بیشتر از 5 درصد تهیه شد. همچنین با بررسی چشمی تصاویر ماهواره‌ای، گزارشات موجود و نیز پیمایش زمینی سواحل استان هرمزگان، موقعیت زیر ساخت‌ها و سازه‌های ساحلی در نواحی پسکرانه مجاور حوزه‌های رویشگاهی مشخص شد. نتایج نشان داد که گستره‌های رو به خشکی مانگروها در دوره زمانی پس از سال 1998 نسبت به دوره پیش از آن به طور قابل ملاحظه‌ای کاهش یافته است و رویشگاه تیاب بیشترین میزان کاهش گستره رو به خشکی را در دوره پس از سال 1998 نسبت به دوره قبل از آن داشته است (در حدود 430 هکتار). بررسی شیب و موقعیت زیرساخت ها در پسکرانه حوزه‌های رویشگاهی نشان داد که به استثنای جزیره مردو، در سایر بخش‌های حوزه‌های رویشگاهی محدودیتی بر مسیر مهاجرت مانگروها به سمت اراضی بالادستی وجود ندارد. در نهایت با توجه به میزان کاهش وسعت مانگروها از سمت خشکی می‌توان میزان آسیب‌پذیری حوزه‌های رویشگاهی را با شرط تداوم روند کنونی خشکسالی به صورت زیر نشان داد: تیاب>خمیر>جاسک.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Vulnerability Assessment of Mangroves to Sea Level Rise

نویسندگان [English]

  • Davood Mafi Gholami
  • Masoumeh Baharlouii
  • Beytollah Mahmoudi
Shahrekord university
چکیده [English]

In general, investigation of the vulnerability of mangroves to sea level rise and other consequences of climate change plays an important role in providing management solutions and enabling these ecosystems in order to minimize and compensate the expected damage. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the vulnerability of mangroves of Hormozgan province to sea level rise. To this end, satellite images of 1986, 1998, and 2016, digital elevation map and dispersion of structures, facilities and industrial and population centers located in the foreshore related to Khamir, Tiab and Jask habitats were used. By having the NDVI and false color composit maps, the supervised classification was done for all images. Using a digital elevation map of Hormozgan province, the slope map of offshore was prepared in two classess of lower and higher than 5%. Also, by surveying satellite imagery, reports and land surveying of the coasts of Hormozgan province, the locations of coastal infrastructures in the offshores adjacent to habitat areas were determined. The results showed that landward areas of the habitats were significantly reduced in the post-1998 compared to pre-1998, and Tiab habitat had the most reduction in the landward area in the period post-1998 (430 ha). The study of the slope and the position of the facilities in the foreshores of the habitats showed that with the exception of the Mardo Island, in other parts of the habitat areas, there is no limitation on the mangrove migration to the upstream areas. Finally, with considering the decrease in the landward areas of mangroves, the degree of vulnerability of habitats with the condition of continuation of the current trend of drought was as follows: Tiab> Khamir> Jask.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Climate change
  • landward progression
  • Hormozgan province
  • mangrove
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