یکپارچگی بوم‌‌شناختی و مروری تحلیلی بر شاخص‌‌های آن

نوع مقاله: مقاله ترویجی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه بیرجند

2 دانشگاه گرگان

چکیده

در سیستم‌‌های بوم‌‌شناختی، اجزای زیستی و غیرزیستی (فیزیکی و شیمیایی) اثرات متقابلی بر یکدیگر دارند. درک و سنجش این سیستم‌‌ها و تعاملات درونی و بیرونی آن‌‌ها دشوار است. در عین‌‌حال، برای اتخاذ تصمیمات مدیریتی درباره اکوسیستم‌‌ها، براساس اصل یکپارچگی کل سیستم، به اطلاعاتی در مورد کل وضعیت و روندهای اکوسیستمی آن‌‌ها نیاز است. اکوسیستم زمانی یکپارچگی دارد که تغییرات ویژگی‌‌های بوم‌‌شناختی آن در محدوده طبیعی تغییرات رخ دهد و از طرف دیگر، تحمل اختلالات و تغییرات حاصل از فعالیت‌‌های انسانی و طبیعی را داشته باشد. در این‌‌صورت اکوسیستم از شرایط موجود خود خارج نمی‌‌شود و روند خودسامان‌‌دهی را ادامه می‌‌دهد. شاخص‌‌های کارآمد برای سنجش یکپارچگی بوم‌‌شناختی باید بیانگر اطلاعات اصلی راجع‌‌به ترکیب، ساختار و کارکرد اکوسیستم و یا به‌‌عبارتی دارای جامعیت باشند. تبیین مفهوم نظری یکپارچگی بوم‌‌شناختی و مرور شاخص‌‌های آن در سلسله مراتب بوم‌‌شناختی به‌‌عنوان ابزار برنامه‌‌ریزی محیط‌‌زیست از اهداف این تحقیق هستند. در این راستا پارامترهای هر شاخص از نظر جامعیت مورد بررسی قرار گرفته است. نتایج نشان داد که شاخص‌‌های گونه‌‌ای و اکوسیستمی بیشتر متمرکز بر وضعیت درونی اکوسیستم هستند. درحالی‌‌که شاخص‌‌های یکپارچگی سیمای‌‌سرزمین علاوه بر وضعیت درونی به رژیم‌‌ها و فرآیندهای اختلالی ناشی از عوامل طبیعی و فعالیت‌‌های بشری توجه دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Ecological Integrity and Analytical Review of Its Indicators

نویسندگان [English]

  • Fatemeh Jahinishakib 1
  • Seyed Hamed Mir Karimi 2
1 Birjand University
2 Gorgan University
چکیده [English]

In ecological systems, biotic and abiotic (physical and chemical) components interact with each other. It is a challenge to understand and measure these systems and their internal and external nteractions. However, to manage the ecosystems sustainably, using the integrity principle, we require information on the status and trends of ecosystems as a whole. An ecosystem has integrity when its ecological characteristics and processes occur within their natural ranges of variation, and also it can withstand perturbations and changes caused by natural environmental or human factors. In this situation, the ecosystem will not be disorganized and the process of self-regulation will continue. Useful indicators for ecological integrity assessment must be comprehensive, representative of composition, structure and function of ecosystems. The goals of this research were to explain the theoretical concept of ecological integrity and review integrity indicators as a tool for environmental planning. As such, integrity indicators were assessed in terms of comprehensiveness. The results showed that the species and ecosystem indices are more focused on the internal state of the ecosystem, while those of landscape concerned with the internal state as well as perturbations caused by human activity and natural disturbance.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Ecological integrity
  • function
  • Ecosystem
  • Indicator
  • landscape
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