نظریه پیچیدگی و اندازه‌‌گیری پیچیدگی اکوسیستم‌‌ها در سیمای سرزمین

نوع مقاله: مقاله ترویجی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان

چکیده

پیچیدگی مفهومی مبهم در بوم‌‌شناسی است که در مطالعه‌های مختلفی به منظور توصیف وضعیت یک اکوسیستم به کارگرفته شده است. نویسندگان بسیاری اذعان کرده‌‌اند که اکوسیستم نمونه‌‌ای از یک سیستم پیچیده است. کنش‌‌های متقابل میان موجودات منجر به پیچیدگی اکوسیستم‌‌ها می‌‌شود و کنش‌‌های متقابل میان موجودات و محیط‌‌ بی‌جان نیز بر این پیچیدگی تاثیر می‌‌گذارد. اکوسیستم‌‌ها از طریق فرایند خودسازمان‌‌دهی به سوی پیچیدگی بیش‌‌تر حرکت می‌‌کنند و پیچیده‌‌ترین سیستم‌‌ها در محدوده بینابینی نظم و بی‌‌نظمی قرار می‌‌گیرند (Parrott, 2010). آشفتگی‌‌های طبیعی موجب می‌‌شوند تا اکوسیستم به سوی وضعیت بی‌‌نظمی حرکت کند در حالی که دخالت‌‌های انسان این سیستم‌‌ها را به سوی نظم بیش‌‌تر سوق می‌‌دهد که موجب پیچیدگی کم‌‌تر اکوسیستم‌‌ها می‌‌شود. امروزه، نبود شناخت و درکی کافی از مفهوم پیچیدگی موجود در اکوسیستم‌‌ها منجر به تخریب اکوسیستم‌‌های مهمی شده است و احیا و بازسازی آن ها را مشکل تر ساخته است. زیرا، این اکوسیستم‌‌ها حاصل کنش‌‌های متقابل میان مولفه‌‌های تشکیل دهنده خود بوده‌‌اند و با از بین رفتن یکی از این مولفه‌‌ها کارکرد سایر مولفه‌‌ها نیز با مشکل روبه‌رو شده است. این مطالعه با هدف تشریح مفهوم پیچیدگی به عنوان یک ویژگی مهم از اکوسیستم‌‌ها و معرفی معیارهای اندازه‌‌گیری این پیچیدگی تلاش می‌‌‌‌کند تا دانش کارشناسان و مدیران محیط‌‌زیست را نسبت به اثرات ناشی از فعالیت‌‌های انسانی افزایش دهد. معیارهای به کارگرفته شده به منظور توصیف پیچیدگی اکوسیستم‌‌ها شامل معیارهای مکانی، زمانی، ساختاری و مکانی- زمانی هستند. باید خاطر نشان کرد که اگر معیارهای مناسبی به منظور توصیف پیچیدگی اکوسیستم‌‌ها توسعه داده شود، آنگاه می‌‌توان پیچیدگی بوم‌‌شناختی را به عنوان شاخصی بوم‌‌شناختی در بررسی سیماهای سرزمین به کارگرفت.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Complexity Theory and Measuring Complexity of Ecosystems in a Landscape

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ehsan Rahimi
  • Abdolrasoul Slaman Mahini
Gorgan Univercity
چکیده [English]

Complexity is an elusive term in ecology that is often used in different ways to describe the state of an ecosystem. Many authors have claimed that an ecosystem is a prototypical complex system. Interactions between organisms lead to complexity in ecosystems while interactions between organisms and their environment also contribute to this complexity. An ecosystem tends towards greater complexity via the process of self-organization, which draws the system away from the two extremes of order and disorder to a state of maximal complexity. Natural disturbance events may cause an ecosystems state to tend towards greater disorder, whereas human intervention can move the system state towards greater order. Today, lack of adequate knowledge about complexity in ecosystems has led to destruction of many ecosystems such that their rehabilitation and restoration has become very hard. For this reason, the preset study aimed to explain the concept of complexity as one of the important attributes in ecosystems and enhance knowledge of experts and managers on environment. We used the temporal, spatial, structure and tempo-spatial measures adapted to describe the complexity of ecosystems. It is argued that if appropriate measures are developed and validated for ecosystems, ecological complexity could become a key ecological indicator.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Complexity Theory
  • Complex systems
  • Measuring complexity of ecosystems
  • Self- organization
  • Human activities
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