شاخص‌های توسعه و رابطه آن با عملکرد ‌محیط‌زیستی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه پیام نور

2 آموزش و پرورش مریوان

چکیده

توسعه و ارتقای استانداردها و عملکرد‌های محیط‌زیستی جوامع وابسته به توسعه‌یافتگی اقتصادی، اجتماعی و سیاسی آنهاست. در این چارچوب پژوهش حاضر ضمن بررسی مهمترین عوامل تاثیرگذار بر عملکرد محیط‌زیستی، به ارزیابی جایگاه ایران در مقایسه با کشورهای OECD، خاورمیانه و میانگین جهانی پرداخته است. از نظر روش‌شناختی، این پژوهش با استفاده از تحلیل ثانویه داده‌های جهانی در فاصله سال‌های 2006 تا 2016 به اجرا درآمده است. یافته‌های پژوهش حاکی از این است که ایران از نظر شاخص عملکرد محیط‌زیستی (EPI) بعد از کشورهای «OECD» در جایگاه دوم قرار گرفته و عملکردی بهتر از کشورهای «خاورمیانه» و «میانگین جهانی» دارد. کشورهای «OECD» که در همه شاخص‌های توسعه جایگاه برتری دارند، از نظر EPI نیز بهترین عملکرد را دارند. «ایران» در شاخص‌هایی مانند «آموزش»، «درآمد»، «سلامت» و «نرخ رشد جمعیت» پایین‌تر از کشورهای OECD و بالاتر از «خاومیانه و «میانگین جهانی» قرار دارد. با وجود این در شاخص‌هایی مانند «کاربرد ICTها»، شاخص «برابری جنسیتی» و شاخص «دموکراسی» جایگاهی پایین‌تر از همه کشورها دارد. با استناد به نتایج می‌توان استدلال کرد که عملکرد محیط‌زیستی کشورها متاثر از توسعه‌یافتگی آنها در شاخص‌های اقتصادی (مانند درآمد)، شاخص‌های اجتماعی (از قبیل آموزش، برابری جنسیتی، نرخ رشد جمعیت، سلامت و کاربرد ICT‌ها) و شاخص‌های توسعه سیاسی (مانند شاخص دموکراسی) است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Development Indexes and its Relation with the Environmental Performance

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hamed Shiri 1
  • Serwa Okhrati 2
1 Payame Noor University
2 Organization, Marivan, Iran
چکیده [English]

The development and enhancement of the environmental standards and performances of a community depend on its economic, social and political development. The current research aims to examine this hypothesis and investigate the most significant factors affecting the Environmental Performance Index (EPI). Methodologically, this research is carried out based on the secondary analysis of global data gathered between the years 2006 and 2016. The EPI in Iran has the second rank after the OECD countries, and has had a better performance compared to the Middle East countries and the Global Average. The OECD countries have the first rank in all the development indexes, as well as the EPI. Iran, on the other hand, ranks below the OECD countries and above the Middle East ones and the Global Average in the education, income, health, and population growth rate indexes. In indexes such as the usage of ICTs, gender equality and democracy it ranks below the Middle East countries and the Global Average. The research indicates the influence of economic development indexes (e.g. the income), social development indexes (e.g. the education, gender equality, population growth rate, health status and usage of ICTs), and political development indexes (e.g. democracy index) on the EPI.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Environment
  • Environmental performance
  • environmental development
  • Development Indexes
  • Iran
Adhami, A. & Akbarzadeh, A. 2011. The Study on Cultural Factors Affecting Environmental Conservation, Journal of Sociology, 1(1): 62-37 (In Persian)

Akbari, H. 2012. Women's Role in Sustainable Environmental Development, Women in Development and Policy, 10(4): 56-37 (In Persian)

Antle, J. M. & Heidebrink, G. 1995. Environment and development: theory and international evidence, Economic Development and Cultural Change, 43, pp. 603–25.

Beckerman, W. 1992. Economic Growth and the Environment: Whose Growth? Whose Environment? World Development, No. 20, pp. 481- 496.

Begum, J. 2004. Women, Environment and Sustainable Development: Making the Links, In Women and the Environment. Edited By United Nations Environment Program. Published By The United Nations Environment Program (UNEP).

Chambers, R. 1987. Sustainable livelihood and development: Putting poor rural people first. Institute of development studies.

Choker, B. A. 2004. Perception and Response to the Challenge of Poverty and Environmental Resource Degradation in Rural Nigeria: Case Study from the Niger Delta, Journal of Environmental Psychology 24, p.306.

Daly, H. E. 1991. Toward Steady state Economy. San Francisco, Calif, Freeman

DESA. 2009. The Millennium Development Goals Report 2009, Published by the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA) – July 2009, available online at www.un.org/millenniumgoals

DFID. 2002. Linking poverty reduction and environmental management. UNDP & World Bank, The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/THE WORLD BANK 1818 H Street, NW Washington, DC, First printing July 2002

DI. 2016. Democracy index 2016: Democracy at a standstill , Economist Intelligence Unit. 14 March 2018. Retrieved 21 March 2014, available online at www.eiu.com

Dinda, S. 2005. A theoretical basis for the environmental Kuznets curve; Ecological Economics 2005, 53, pp. 403-413.

Ehrlich, P. R. & Ehrlich A. H. 1971. Global Ecology: Readings toward a Rational Strategy for Man, New York, J. P. Holdren P. R. Ehrlich (Eds), Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.

Elliott, C, 2006. Technical Sales Representative: Suprema Canada.

EPI. 2016. Environmental Performance Index and Pilot Trend Environmental Performance Index, Yale Center for Environmental Law and Policy, Yale University Center for International Earth Science Information Network, Columbia University, available online at www.epi.yale.edu

Forsyth, T. & Leach M. 1998. Poverty and environment: Priorities for research and policy. UK. Sussex. International Development Research center Ottawa, Canada. (2004). Prospectus For Rural Poverty and Environment Program Initiative For 2005-2010.

Georgescu, R. N. 1971. The Entropy Law and the Economic Process, Cambridge, Harvard University Press

Gholami, Z. 2012. Investigating the Relationship between Globalization and Environmental Sustainability in Selected World Countries, MSc Thesis, Faculty of Administrative Sciences and Economics, University of Mazandaran (In Persian)

HDR. 2016. Human Development Report, Available at: http://hdr.undp.org

IEA, International Energy Agency. 2009. CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion – Highlights (2009 edition), available online at www.iea.org

Jafari S. A. & Ahmadpour, M. 2011. Investigating the Relationship between Environmental Performance Index and Economic Growth in Developed Countries, Quarterly Journal of Environmental and Energy Economics, 1(1): 72-55 (In Persian)

Kuznets, S. 1995. Economic growth and inequality, American Economic Review, Vol 45, 1-28

OECD, 2015. The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, available online at www.oecd.org

Palmer, J. A. 1998. Environmental Education in the 21st Century: Theory, Practice, Progress and Promise, Routledge, London.

Pajouyan, J. & Lashkarizadeh, M. 2010. Investigating the Factors Affecting the Relationship between Economic Growth and Environmental Quality. Iranian Economic Research Quarterly, 14(42): 188-169 (In Persian)

Rafeei, M. 2010. Investigating the Relationship between Economic Growth and Environmental Efficiency in Iran and Some Selected Countries, MSc Thesis, Faculty of Economics, Allameh Tabatabai University (In Persian)

Reardon, T. & Vosti, S. A. 1995. Links between Rural Poverty and the Environment in Developing Countries, World Development, 23(9): 1495.

Rezaei, M. 2011. Investigating the Impact of Globalization of Communications on Environmental Tendency, MSc Thesis, Al-Zahra University, Faculty of Social and Economic Sciences (In Persian)

Salehi Emran, E. & Aghamohammadi, A. 2008. A Study on Teachers' Knowledge, Attitude and Environmental Skills, Education and Training, 95, pp.117-91 (In Persian)

Sanderson, S. 2005. Poverty and Conservation: The New Century's “Peasant Question?” World Development, Vol. 33, No. 2, p. 328.

Scherr, S. J. 2000. A Downward Spiral? Research Evidence on the Relationship between Poverty and Natural Resource Degradation, Food Policy 25, p. 481.

Selden, T. M. & Song, D. 1994. Environmental Quality and Development: Is there a Kuznets Curve for Air Pollution Emissions? Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, No. 27, pp. 147- 162.

Sharifinia, Z. & Mahdavi Hajiloui, M. 2011. The Role of Social Poverty and Rural Economy on Environmental Destruction), Human Geography Research, 76, pp. 84-67 (In Persian)

Sobhani Najafabadi, Z. 2011. The Relationship between Environmental Performance and Economic Growth in Provinces of Iran, MSc Thesis, Faculty of Economics, Tarbiat Modares University (In Persian)

Tohme, G. 1992. Cultural Development and Environment. Geneva, International Bureau of Education (IBE)

Turner, K.; Pierce, D. & Bateman, A. 1993. Environmental Economics: An Elementary Introduction. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press

UNEP. 2009. Climate in Peril – A popular guide to the latest IPCC reports, UNEP/GRID-Arendal, Printed by Birkeland Trykkeri, Norway, available online at www.grida.no

Yabuta, M. & Nakamura, k. 2003. Governance, Pollution Control and the Environmental Kuznets Curve, October 3, Discussion Paper Series N. 48.