بررسی آلودگی فلزات سنگین در ذرات‌‌معلق (PM10) (مطالعه موردی: شهر کرمانشاه)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

هدف از این مطالعه، بررسی میزان آلودگی فلزات سنگین در ذرات‌‌معلق (PM10) در اتمسفر شهر کرمانشاه است. غلظت 13عنصر فلزات سنگین (مس، نیکل، سرب، کادمیم، سلنیوم، روی، آهن،کروم، کبالت، آرسنیک، مولیبدن، وانادیم، آلومینیوم، منگنز) برای 55 نمونه خاک (در نقاط مختلف ارتفاعی 1600-600 متر) و 41 نمونه ذرات‌‌معلق به وسیله دستگاه ICP آنالیز شد. آلودگی فلزات سنگین با استفاده از شاخص زمین انباشتگی، شاخص آلودگی، فاکتور غنی‌‌شدگی و تحلیل عاملی بررسی شده ‌‌است. نتایج حاصل از این مطالعه نشان داد که عناصر مس، سرب، نیکل، وانادیم، کادمیم، سلنیوم، آرسنیک، کبالت دارای آلودگی کم و عناصر کروم و آهن دارای آلودگی متوسط و عنصر روی دارای آلودگی زیاد و عنصر مولیبدن دارای آلودگی خیلی زیاد هستند. نتایج فاکتور غنی‌شدگی نشان داد که روی غنی‌‌ترین عنصر و به دنبال آن، مولیبدن با غنی‌‌شدگی بسیار بالا واقع شده ‌‌است که این امر نشان می‌‌دهد که آنها احتمالا به منابع غیر‌‌خاکی همانند خروجی وسایل نقلیه وابسته‌‌اند. فاکتور غنی‌شدگی آهن، مس، سرب، کادمیم، نیکل، وانادیم و کروم در گستره بین 1 تا 10 و با غنی شدگی کم تا بالا می‌‌باشند که دلالت بر آن دارد که این عناصر توسط منابع غیر‌‌خاکی انتشار یافته‌‌اند. بقیه عناصر (سلنیوم، آرسنیک و کبالت) دارای فاکتور غنی‌‌شدگی کمتر از 1/0 با غنی‌شدگی کم هستند که نشان‌‌دهنده آن است که این عناصر از پوسته سرچشمه گرفته‌‌اند. براساس نتایج فاکتور غنی‌‌شدگی و تحلیل عاملی این عناصر منشا انسانی دارند که انتشارات ناشی از وسایل‌‌نقلیه و سوزاندن نفت- صنعت نقش اصلی را در انتشار این عناصر به اتمسفر دارند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation of the Heavy Metals Pollution in PM10 Aerosols (Case Study Area: City of Kermanshah)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Zeinab Nazari
  • Nematollah Khorasani
  • Sadat Feiznia
  • Mahmoud Karami
University of tehran
چکیده [English]

The purpose of this research is investigation of the heavy metals pollution in PM10 aerosols in atmosphere in city of Kermanshah. The concentrations of thirteen elements consisting of Cu, Ni, Pb, Cd, Se, Zn, Fe, Cr, Co, As, Mo, V were analyzed by ICP for 55 soil samples (in various point of the height of 600-1600m) and 41 aerosols samples. The heavy metals pollution have been investigated using geo- accumulation index, contamination factor, enrichment factor, factor analysis. The results obtained from this studying, showed that elements of Cu, Ni, Pb, Cd, Se, Co, As, V have low pollution, elements of Fe, Cr have medium pollution, element of Zn has high pollution, element of Mo has very high pollution. Based on results of enrichment factor, Zn is the most enriched element. Mo have located after Zn. These elements have high EF-values. This indicates that they are probably dependent on non-soil sources such as vehicle exhaust. Enrichment Factor for Cu, Pb, Ca, Ni, V and Cr are in the range of 1 to 10. This implies that these elements were influenced not only by crust, but also by other pollution sources. Enrichment Factor of other elements (selenium, arsenic, cobalt) are less than 0.1. This indicates that these elements have originated from the crust. Based on results of enrichment factor and factor analysis, these elements have anthropogenic source that emissions of vehicle and industry-oil burning emissions have the main role in emission to atmosphere.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Contamination Factor
  • Enrichment Factor
  • Factor analysis
  • Geo-Accumulation Index
  • heavy metals
Addo‚ M. A.; Darko‚ E. O.; Gordon‚ C.; Nyarko‚ B. J. B. & Gbadago J. K. 2012. Heavy Metal Concentrations in Road Deposited Dust at Ketu-South District, Ghana. International of Journal of Science and Technology. 2(1): 28-29.

Afshari, A.; Khademi, H. & Hojjati, S. 2017. Evaluation of the potential risk of heavy metal pollution in the central soils of Zanjan province based on various types of pollution indicators. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation Researches. 23 (6): 40-21.(in Persian)

Afshari, A.; Khademi, H. & Delavar, M.A. 2017. Evaluation of heavy metals pollution using of pollution factor in land with different uses in the central part of Zanjan province. Journal of Water and Soil Science. 25 (4/2): 52-41. (in Persian(

AhmadiDooabi, Sh.; Afyoni, M.; Khademi, H. & Karami, M. 2016. Statistical analysis of heavy metal pollution in atmospheric dust in Kermanshah province. Journal of Soil and Water Sciences (Agricultural Science and Technology and Natural Resources). Year 20 (76): 43-29. (in Persian(

Barzin, M.; Khairabadi, H. & Afyoni, M. 2015. Investigation of heavy metal pollution of surface soils of Hamadan province using of pollution indicators. Journal of Agricultural Technology and Science and Natural Resources. Water and Soil Sciences. Year 19 (72): 79-68. (in Persian)

Behroush, F.; Mahmoodi Qaraei, M.H. Qasemzadeh, F. & I exchanged, S. 2017. Investigation of heavy metal pollution in traffic dust of Mashhad city and determination of its origin using of sequential extraction method. Journal of Earth Sciences. Year 24 (95): 150-141. (in Persian)

Cao‚ J.; Shen‚ Zh. C.; Chow‚ J.; Qi‚ G. G. & Watson‚ J. 2009. Seasonal Variations and Sources of Mass and Chemical Composition for PM10 Aerosol in Hangzhou, China. Journal of Particuolog. 7: 161-168.

Dabiri, M. 2015. Environmental Pollution (Air-Water-Soil-Noise), Ittihad Publications. (in Persian)

Dastgoshadeh, F.; Tony, A.; Moghaddam SheikhKhan, S.; Taghinejad, G.; Hemtian, N. & Hatami, R. 2015. Evaluation of heavy metal pollution in dust on some roads in Karaj. Journal of Environmental Studies. 40 (2): 344-331. (in Persian)

Engberg‚ C.C. 1995. The regulation and manufacture of brake pads: the feasibility of reformulation to reduce the copper load to the San Francisco Bay. http://www.p2pays.org/ref/02/01393.pdf.

Erfanmanesh, M. & Afyoni. M. 2011. Environmental Pollution (Water, Soil and Air), Arkan Publications. (in Persian)

Gravand, M.; Ghasemi, H. & Hafezimoghadas, N. 2014. Geochemical and Environmental Assessment of Heavy Metals in Soils from Gorgan Shist. Journal of Earth Sciences. 22 (3586): 35-46. (in Persian)

Hakanson, L. 1980. An ecological risk index for aquatic pollution contror: a sedimentological. Journal of Water Research. 14: 975-1001.

Hamza, M.A.; Mirzaei, M. & Mozaffari, H. 2015. Investigation of variations in lead, zinc, copper and cadmium concentrations in urban environment of Kerman. Journal of Environmental Technology and Science. 11 (3): 177-161. (in Persian)

Han‚ Y.M.; Cao‚ J.J.; Jin‚ Z.D. & ZS‚ AN. 2008. Elemental Composition of Aerosols in Daihai, a Rural Area in the Front Boundary of the Summer Asian Monsoon. Journal of Atmospheric Research. 92:229-235.

Hanafin‚ A. J.; Vaishya‚ S.; Jennings‚ G.; Ward‚ B.; Martucci‚ G.; Varghese‚ S & O’Dowd‚ C.D.H. 2009.Atmospheric research in the ECI and remote sensing at Mace Head (powerpoint). Centre for Climate & Air Pollution Studies. Environmental Change Institute, National University of Ireland, Galway. www.macehead.org.

Koulouri‚ E.; Saarikoski‚ S.; Theodosi‚ C.; Markaki‚ Z.; Gerasopoulos‚ E.; Kouvarakis‚ G.; Ma¨kela¨‚ T.; Hillamo‚ R & Mihalopoulos‚ N. 2008. Chemical composition and sources of fine and coarse aerosol particles in the Eastern Mediterranean. Journal of Atmospheric Environment. 42 (2008): 6542–6550.

Maenhaut, W. 2017. Source apportionment revisited for long-term measurements of fine aerosol trace elements at two locations in southern Norway. Materials and Atoms. In Press, Corrected Proof, Available online 20 July 2017.

Mohammed, G.; Karani, G. & Mitchell, D. 2017. Trace Elemental Composition in PM10 and PM2.5 Collected in Cardiff, Wales. Energy Procedia. 111: 540-547.

Muller G. 1969. Index of geo-accumulation in sediment of the Rhine River. Geojournal. 2: 108-118.

Na‚ K & Cocker‚ D.R. 2009. Characterization and Source Identification of Trace Elements in PM2.5 from Mira Loma, Southern California. Journal of Atmospheric Research. doi:10.1016/j.atmosres.2009.03.012.

Norbeck, J.M.; Durbin, T.D & Truex, T.J. 1998. Measurement of primary particulate mattermiss fromlight-duty motor vehicles. Center for Environmental Research and Technology. University of California, Riverside. CA. Final Report, CRC Project No. E-24-2.

Nyanganyura, D.; Maenhaut, W.; Mathuthu, M.; Makarau, A & Franz, X. 2007. The chemical composition of tropospheric aerosols and theircontributing sources to a continental background site in northern Zimbabwe from 1994 to 2000. Journal of Atmospheric Environment. 41 (2007): 2644–2659.

Padoan, E.; Malandrino, M.; Giacomino, A.; M. Grosa, M.; Lollobrigida, F.; Martini, S. & Abollino, O. 2016. Spatial distribution and potential sources of trace elements in PM10 monitored in urban and rural sites of Piedmont Region. Chemosphere. 145: 495-507.

Pope, C.A.; Dockery, D.W & Schwartz, J. 1995. Review of Epidemiological Evidence of Health Effects of Particulare Air Pollution. Journal of Inhalation Toxicology. 7:1-18.

Ramirez‚ O.; De la campa‚ A.M.S.; Amato‚ F.; A. Catacolí‚ R.; Y. Rojas‚ N. & De la rosa‚ J. 2018. Chemical composition and source apportionment of PM10 at an urban background site in a high–altitude Latin American megacity (Bogota, Colombia). Environmental Pollution. 233: 142-155.

Safari, Y.; Delavar, M.A.; Esfandiarpour Borjani, A. Salehi, M.H. & Oliaei, H.R. 2018. Evaluation of heavy metals situation in Zanjan industrial town with the help of pollution load index. Journal of Soil Management and Sustainable Production. 6 (2): 133-119. (in Persian)

Sahraei, 2008. Air pollution (Powerpoint), Physics Department of Razi University, http:// www.razi.ac.ir /sahrae. (in Persian)

Shahbazi, A.; Sefaian, A.R.; Mirghafari, N.A. & Ainghlabi, M.R. 2012. Investigation of heavy metal contamination of soil using of pollution factor indicators, Geoaccumulation Index and pollution factor integerated index (Case study: Nehavand city). Journal of Environment and Development. Year 3 (5): 38-31. (in Persian)

Tang, Y. & Han, G. 2017. Characteristics of major elements and heavy metals in atmospheric dust in Beijing, China. Journal of Geochemical Exploration. 176: 114-119.

Viana, M.; Kuhlbusch, T.A.J.; Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; Harrison, R.M.; Hopke, P.K.; Winiwarter, W.; Vallius, M.; Szidat, S.; H.Prevot, A.S.; Hueglin, C.; Bloemen, H.; Wahlin, P.; Vecchi, R.; Miranda , A.I.; Kasper-Giebl, A.; Maenhaut, W & Hitzenberger, R. 2008, Source apportionment of particulate matter in Europe: a review of methods and results, Journal of Aerosol Science. 39: 827–849.

Wei, B & Yang, L. 2010. A review of heavy metal contamination in urban soils, urban road dusts and agricultural soils from Chin. Journal of Microchemical journal. 94: 99-107.

Wildhaber, J.H. 2006. Aerosols: The environmental harmful effect. Journal of Paediatric respiratory reviews, 7S. pp.2: S86–S87.

Yatkin, S & Bayram, A. 2008. Source apportionment of PM10 and PM2.5 using positive matrix factorization and chemical mass balance in Izmir, Turkey. Journal of SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT. 390 (2008): 109 – 123.

Yu Hsu, Ch.; Che Chiang, H.; Lin,Sh.L.; Chen, M.J.; Lin,T.Y. & Chen, Y.Ch. 2016. Elemental characterization and source apportionment of PM10 and PM2.5 in the western coastal area of central Taiwan. Science of the Total Environment. 541: 1139-1150.

Zarasoundi, A.R.; Rastmanesh, F.; Pourkaseb, H. & Azarmi, Z. 2012. Geochemical study of heavy metals in dust and some of plant species in Ahvaz city with emphasis on their absorption, the second national conference of the Iranian Economic Geological Society, Lorestan University. (in Persian)

ZareChachauki, M.A. 2016. Data Analysis in Natural Resources Researches by SPSS Software, Publications of Daneshgahi Jehad, Tehran. (in Persian)