بررسی اثر تغییر کاربری/ پوشش اراضی بر عرضه خدمات زیستگاهی (مطالعه موردی: منطقه حفاظت‌شده ارس سیستان)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه اردکان

چکیده

تنوع‌زیستی طی ۶۰ سال گذشته، کاهش شدیدتری در مقایسه با هر زمان در تاریخ بشر را تجربه کرده است. از آنجایی که کاهش تنوع‌زیستی همواره با تخریب اکوسیستم همراه است بنابراین، به نوبه خود بر رفاه انسان از طریق نبود مزایای خدمات اکوسیستمی که اکوسیستم‌ها فراهم می‌کنند، تاثیر می‌گذارد. اکوسیستم‌‌ها با عرضه خدمات زیستگاهی به حفظ تنوع‌زیستی در سطوح مختلف تنوع‌‌زیستی کمک می‌‌کنند. در این مطالعه با هدف بررسی اثرات تغییر کاربری/ پوشش اراضی بر عرضه خدمات زیستگاه در منطقه حفاظت‌‌شده ارس سیستان در خراسان رضوی، اقدام به مدل‌‌سازی کیفیت زیستگاه این منطقه برای بازه زمانی 30 ساله توسط بسته نرم‌افزاری InVEST شد. نتایج نشان داد که سطح طبقات اراضی باغی، زراعی و مسکونی 64 درصد، مراتع تنک 6 درصد و ارس متراکم 6 درصد کاهش و طبقات مراتع نیمه متراکم 15 درصد و ارس نیمه متراکم 1 درصد افزایش یافته است. همچنین نتایج نشان داد که کیفیت زیستگاه طی 30 سال گذشته حدود 12000 هکتار کاهش یافته است. به عبارت دیگر اراضی تحت پوشش زیستگاه‌‌های با کیفیت از 98/36 به 95/25 درصد کاهش یافته‌‌ است و 29253 هکتار از منطقه (حدود 26 درصد) دارای شاخص کمیابی متوسط و 2405 هکتار از منطقه (2/2 درصد) دارای شاخص کمیابی بالا می‌‌باشد که این موضوع لزوم حفاظت هرچه بیشتر از زیستگاه‌‌های این منطقه را نشان می‌‌هد. بر اساس بررسی‌‌های انجام شده، مهمترین عوامل تاثیرگذار بر خدمات زیستگاهی و در نتیجه حیات‌وحش این منطقه را می‌توان به عواملی از قبیل تخریب زیستگاه، شکار غیرمجاز، چرای احشام، آغل‌‌ها، حضور سگ‌‌های گله و خشکسالی‌‌های اخیر اشاره نمود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation of the Effect of Land Change / Land Cover on the Supply of Habitat Services (Case Study: Ors Sistan Protected Area)

نویسندگان [English]

  • mohammad sarbaz
  • maryam morovati
  • mahdi tazeh
University ,Ardakan
چکیده [English]

Diversity has experienced a sharp decline over the past 60 years compared to any time in human history. Reducing biodiversity is associated with the degradation of ecosystems, which in turn affects human well-being through the lack of ecosystem service benefits that ecosystems provide. Ecosystems contribute to the conservation of biodiversity at various levels of diversity through the provision of habitat services. The results showed that the lands of garden, agronomic and residential lands were 64%, 6% trench rangelands and 6% reduction of ors and 6%. And semi- dense rangelands of 15% and semi-dense ors 1% increased. The results showed that the lands of garden, agronomic and residential lands were 64%, 6% trench rangelands and 6% ors was Decreased. And semi-condensing rangelands, 15% and semi-dense ors 1% increased. The results showed that the quality of habitat has dropped by about 12,000 hectares over the past 30 years, in other words, the areas covered by quality habitats dropped from 36.98 to 25.25 percent. The results showed that the quality of habitat has dropped by about 12,000 hectares over the past 30 years, in other words, the areas covered by quality habitats dropped from 36.98 to 25.25 percent and 29253 ha of the region (about 26%) had a moderate scarcity index and2405 ha of the region (2.2%) with a high scarcity index, which required the further protection of the habitats of this area. Based on the findings of this study, the most important factors affecting the habitat services and as a result of the wildlife of this region Can be expressed factors such as habitat destruction, unauthorized hunting, cattle grazing, corral, The presence of flock dogs and recent droughts.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Habitat quality
  • Protected area of Ors Sistan
  • Change in usage
  • InVEST
  • Habitat service
Alavi Penah, S. K.; Rafiei emam, A.; Hosseni, S. & Beigloo, M. 2007. Spectral Variability Study of Different Vegetation and Water Coverage Phenomena Using Remote Sensing. Journal of Geographical Research, Summer 2007, 38, 6 (58): 81- 97. (in persian)

Asadolahi, Z.; Salmanmahini, A.; Mir Karimi, H. & Al Sadat Azimi., M. 2016. The effect of land use change on habitat supply with InVEST software. Environmental Science and Technology. (in persian)

Bai, Y.; Zhung, C.; Ouyang, Z.; Zheng, H. & Jiang, B. 2011. Spatial characteristics between biodiversity and ecosystem services in a human-dominated watershed. Ecological Complexity. 8:177-183.

Barral, M. P. & Maceira, N. O. 2012. Land-use planning based on ecosystem service assessment: A case study in the southeast Pampas of Argentina. Agriculture, Ecosystem and Environment, 154, 34- 43.

Bastian, O.; Haase, D. & Grunewald, K. 2012. Ecosystem properties, potentials and services–The EPPS conceptual framework and an urban application example. Ecological indicators, 21, pp.7-16.

Bihamta, M. R. & Zare chahoki, M. A. 2011. Principles of Statistics in Natural Resources Sciences. University of Tehran Publications. Third edition. (in persian)

Bruner, A. G.; Gullison, R.; Rice, R. & Da Fonseca, G. 2001. Effectiveness of parks in protecting tropical biodiversity. Science 291, 125–128.

Carpenter, G.; Gillison, A. N. & Winter, J. 1993. Domain: a flexible modelling procedure formapping potential distributions of plants and animals. Biodiversity Conservation 2: 667-680.

Ceschia, S.; Di Gaspero, L. & Schaerf, A. 2011. Tabu search techniques for the heterogeneous vehicle routing problem with time windows and carrier-dependent costs. Journal of Scheduling, 14(6), pp.601-615.

Czech, B. P.; Krausman, R. & Devers, P. K. 2000. Economic Associations among Causes of Species Endangerment in the United States. Bioscience 50:593-601

Dale, V.H. & Polasky, S. 2007. Measures of the effects of agricultural practices on ecosystem services. Ecological Economics 64, 286–296.

Environmental Protection Agency. 2014. Ava Environment Engineers Co. of Khorasan. Studies of the Management Plan of Oristan Sistan Protected Area. Report Number One (Geology). (in persian)

Fatemi, B. & Rezaei, Y. 2014. Basics of Remote Sensing. fourth edition. Azade Publications. (in persian)

Goldstein, J. H.: Caldarone, G.; Duarte, T.K.; Ennaanay, D.; Hannahs, N.; Mendoza, G.; Polasky, S.; Wolny, S. & Daily, G.C. 2012. Integrating ecosystem-service tradeoffs into land-use decisions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 109, 7565–7570.

Hall, L.S.; Krausman, P.R. & Morrison, M.L. 1997. The habitat concept and a plea for standard terminology. Wildlife Society Bulletin 25(1):173-182.

Larigauderie, A. & Mooney, H.A. 2010. The Intergovernmental science-policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services: moving a step closer to an IPCC-like mechanism for biodiversity. Current opinion in environmental sustainability, 2(1-2), pp.9-14.

Mace, G.M.; Cramer, W.; Díaz, S.; Faith, D.P.; Larigauderie, A.; Le Prestre, P.; Palmer, M.; Perrings, C.; Scholes, R.J.; Walpole, M. & Walther, B.A. 2010. Biodiversity targets after 2010. Current opinion in environmental sustainability, 2(1-2), pp.3-8.

Margules, C. & Pressey, R. 2000. Systematic conservation planning. Nature, 405: 243-253.

Metzgar, M. J.; Rounsevell, M. D. A.; Acosta-Michlik.; Leemans, R. & Schroter. D. 2006. The vulnerability of ecosystem services to land use change. Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment. 114: 69-85.

Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. 2005. Our human planet: summary for decision makers. Washington (DC): Island Press (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Series).

Müller, F. & Burkhard, B. 2012. The indicator side of ecosystem services. Ecosystem Services, 1(1), 26-30.

Nelson, E.; Sander, H.; Hawthorne, P.; Conte, M.; Ennaanay, D.; Wolny, S.; Manson, S. & Polasky, S. 2010. Projecting global land-use change and its effect on ecosystem service provision and biodiversity with simple models. PLoS ONE.12, e14327.

Nelson, E.; Mendoza, G.; Regetz, J.; Polasky, S.; Tallis, H.; Cameron, D. & Chan, Kai M.A. 2009. Modeling multiple ecosystem services, biodiversity conservation, commodity production, and tradeoffs at landscape scales. Front. Ecol. Environ. 7, 4e11.

Penny F. Langhammer, Mohamed I. Bakarr, Leon A. Bennun, Thomas M. Brooks, Rob P. Clay, Will Darwall, Naamal De Silva, Graham J. Edgar, Güven Eken, Lincoln D.C.

Polasky, S.; Nelson, E.; Pennington, D. & Johnson, K.A. 2011. The impact of land use change on ecosystem services, biodiversity and returns to landowners: a case study in the state of Minnesota. Environ. Resource Econ, 48,219-242.

Raudsepp-Hearne, C.; Peterson, G. D. & Bennet, E. M. 2010. Ecosystem service bundles for analyzing tradeoffs in diverse landscapes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 11: 5242-5247

Reynolds, J.D.; Mace, G.M.; Redford, K.H. & Robinson, J.G. 2001. Conservation of Exploited Species. Cambridge.

Rodriguez, J. P.; Beard Jr, T. D.; Bennett, E. M.; Cumming, G. S.; Cork, S.; Agard, J.; Dobson, A.P. & Peterson, G.D. 2006. Trade-offs across space, time, and ecosystem services. Ecology and Society. 11, 28.

Roodgarmi, P.; Khorasani, N.; Monaveri, M., Noori, J. 2007. Predicting environmental impacts of development using satellite imagery and remote sensing techniques. Environmental science and technology. Eleventh Period. number one. Spring Specials 2009. (in persian)

Sabzghobaei, Gh. & Salehi pour, F. 2013. Protecting zoning as a way of achieving effective management of protected areas. First National Conference on Environment, Energy and Biosafety, Tehran. (in persian)

Sarbaz, M.; Morovati, M.; Farashi, A. & Tazeh, M. 2017. Investigate InVEST software as a tool for habitat quality. 7 th International Conference on Sustainable Development and Urban Development, University of Isfahan. (in persian)

Satir, O. & Berberoglu, S. 2012. Land Use/Cover Classification Techniques Using Optical Remotely Sensed Data in Landscape Planning. Landscape Planning, InTech, Turkey Published, 22-54.

Sharp, R.; Chaplin-Kramer, R.; Wood, S.; Guerry, A.; Tallis, H. & Taylor, R. 2014 InVEST User’s Guide: Integrated Valuation of Environmental Services and Tradeoffs (Stanford, CA: The Natural Capital Project) p 321.

Shojaeian, A.; Mokhtari chelcheleh, S.; Keshtkar, L. & Soleimani rad, A. 2014. Comparison of the Performance of Parametric and Nonparametric Landscape Classification Methods Using Landsat 8 Satellite Images (Case Study: Part of Dezful County). Journal of Geographical Information, Spring 2015, 24 (93). (in persian)

TEEB, 2010.The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity: Ecological and Economic Foundations. In: Pushpam Kumar (Ed.), Earth scan, London and Washington.

Van Strien, A.J.; Soldaat, L.L. & Gregory, R.D. 2012. Desirable mathematical properties of indicators for biodiversity change. Ecological Indicators, 14(1), pp.202-208.

Vincent, J. 2010. New materials and natural design. In: Allen, R. (Ed.), Bulletproof Feathers. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Vitousek, P.M.; Mooney, H.A.; Lubchenco, J. & Melillo, J.M. 1997. Human domination of Earth’secosystems. Science 277:494- 499.

Von Haaren, C. & Albert, C. 2011. Integrating ecosystem services and environmental planning: limitations and synergies. International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystem Services & Management, 7(3), pp.150-167.

Wilcove, D. S.; D. Rothstein, J.; Dubow, A.; Phillips, & Losos, E.1998. Quantifying Threats to Imperiled Species in the United States. Bioscience 48:607-615.

Zarandian, A.; Yavari, A.; Jaafari, H. R. & Amirnejad, H. 2015. Modeling the effects of land cover change on habitat quality in the Sarvolat and Javaherdasht forest lands. Environmental research, Fall and Winter 2015, 6 (11): 183- 194. (in persian)