اثر تغییرات سنجه‌های سیمای سرزمین بر کیفیت آب تالاب بین‌المللی انزلی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه صنعتی اصفهان

2 دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان

چکیده

در مطالعه‌های مدیریت منابع آب‌های سطحی و زیرزمینی، بررسی آلودگی و گسترش آن‌ها در مناطق تحت تاثیر منبع آلاینده از موضوع‌‌های بسیار مهم است. یکی از اثرات محیط‌زیستی تغییر کاربری اراضی، تاثیر مستقیم آن بر کیفیت آب‌های سطحی است؛ بنابراین، دانستن چگونگی اثر الگوی مکانی و نحوه چیدمان‌کاربری‌های مختلف اراضی بر کیفیت آب به منظور تعیین بهترین فعالیت‌های مدیریتی بسیار حایز اهمیت است. در این راستا اثر الگوی‌ مکانی و تغییرات شش طبقه کاربری اراضی کشاورزی و مرتع، شهر و روستا، دریا، آب، باغ وجنگل‌، پوشش گیاهی سطح وکناره آب‌، در مقیاس سیمای سرزمین بر کیفیت آب تالاب انزلی ‌(یکی از مهم‌ترین تالاب‌های ایران)، مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. سنجه‌های سیمای سرزمین در این مطالعه شامل درصد مساحت لکه‌، تعداد لکه، تراکم لکه، حاشیه کل، تراکم حاشیه، مساحت کلاس‌کاربری و بزرگ‌ترین لکه و پارامترهای کیفیت آب شامل COD، NO3، COD، P و BOD5 بود. پردازش تصاویر ماهواره‌ای در محیط IDRISI ‌و محاسبه سنجه‌های مربوطه با استفاده از نرم‌افزار‌ Fragstates صورت گرفت. این مطالعه در بازه 28 سال (1364 و 1392) انجام شده است .نتایج حاصل از این مطالعه نشان داد که کیفیت آب‌ تالاب به طور قابل توجهی از مساحت و الگوی مکانی کاربری کشاورزی و مرتع متاثر شده است. افزایش حاشیه کاربری کشاورزی و مرتع‌ اثر منفی بر کیفیت آب‌ بالاخص NO3 و BOD5 داشته است. به طورکلی نتایج حاصل از تغییرات سنجه‌های مذکور متناسب با پارامترهای کیفی آب، تجزیه و تخریب سیمای سرزمین تالاب بین‌المللی انزلی را نشان داد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Landscape Pattern Changes and Water Quality Relationship in International Anzali Wetland

نویسندگان [English]

  • Maryam Fallah 1
  • ahmadreza pirali 2
  • aliakbar Hedayati 2
1 Esfahan University
2 University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan
چکیده [English]

In studies of surface and underground water resources management, contamination and their spread are very important issues in areas affected by the source of contamination. One of the environmental impacts of land-used change is its direct impact on surface water quality; therefore, it is investigated that how would landscape characteristics and land-use patterns could affect water quality and ecosystem management. In this regard, the effects of six land use including forest and gardens, agriculture and pasture, urban and village, water, sea, vegetation and surface water withdrawal were identified to examine how landscape influence water quality parameters in Anzali wetland (one of the most important wetlands in Iran). Landscape metric of this study were included number of Patches, Edge Density, Percentage of landscape, Total Edge, Patch Density, Class Area and Largest Patch Index and water quality parameters including COD, NO3, COD, P, BOD5. The processing of satellite images was done in the IDRISI and the calculation of related measures using Fragstates software. In this study was at the period of 28 years (1983-2011). The results indicated that water quality was significantly correlated with both proportions and configuration of agriculture and pasture areas. Total edge of Agriculture and pasture area had negative effects on water quality, especially on NO3 and BOD5. In general, the results of the changes in the measured parameters indicated destruction and degradation of the landscape of International Anzali Wetland.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Water Quality
  • land use
  • Landscape metrics
  • Vegetation
  • Agricultural Lands
  • International Anzali wetland
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