ارزیابی آلودگی آب‌های زیرزمینی حاصل از استخراج شن و ماسه در استخرهای ترسیبی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه مهندسی نقشه‌‌برداری، دانشکده مهندسی علوم زمین، دانشگاه صنعتی اراک، ایران

2 دانشجوی دکتری جغرافیا، دانشکده جغرافیا، دانشگاه مونترال، مونترال، کانادا

چکیده

به دلیل قرارگیری سفره‌‌های آب زیرزمینی در زیر سـطح معادن و کارخانه‌های تولید شن و ماسه، بررسی میزان تاثیر این معادن بر آلایندگی منابع آب زیرزمینی بسیار حیاتی است. هدف اصلی این تحقیق شناسایی و ارزیابی آلودگی آب‌های زیرزمینی حاصل از استخراج و شستشوی شن و ماسه در استخرهای ترسیبی واقع در معادن شهر شهریار و شهر قدس است. بررسی‌‌های صورت‌‌گرفته نشان می‌‌دهد که تاکنون مطالعه‌‌ای بر روی آلودگی آب‌های زیرزمینی بر اثر استخراج و شستشوی شن و ماسه در منطقه‌‌ی مطالعاتی صورت نگرفته است. تحقیق حاضر در سه مرحله‌‌ی آماده‌‌سازی داده‌‌ها، تهیه‌‌ی نقشه‌‌ی پیوسته از پارامترهای کیفی آب‌‌های زیرزمینی با روش کریجینگ ساده و محاسبه‌‌ی رابطه ‌‌و ضریب همبستگی مکانی بین منطقه‌‌ی معادن و پارامترهای کیفی انجام شد. نتایج نشان می‌‌دهد که میزان بی‌کربنات، کربنات، نیترات، سدیم، پتاسیم، کلر، منیزیم و اسیدیته آب‌های زیرزمینی در منطقه در حد مجاز است، اما میزان سولفات، ضریب هدایت الکتریکی و مقدار کل مواد جامد حل‌‌شده (TDS) آب زیرزمینی در منطقه‌‌ی مورد مطالعه بیشتر از حد مجاز است. ضریب همبستگی مکانی بین فاصله از منطقه‌‌ی برداشت شن و ماسه با مورد بیان شده به ترتیب 53/0-، 56/0- و 61/0- بود، که مبین وجود رابطه بین این سه پارامتر و برداشت شن و ماسه است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of Groundwater Contamination Caused by Extraction of Sand and Gravel in Pools

نویسندگان [English]

  • Navid Hooshangi 1
  • Navid Mahdizadeh Gharakhanlou 2
1 Assist. Profe, Department of Surveying Engineering, College of Earth Sciences Engineering, Arak University of Technology, Arak, Iran
2 Laboratory of Environmental Geosimulation (LEDGE), Department of Geography, University of Montreal, Montréal, Canada
چکیده [English]

Assessing the effect of sand and gravel harvesting on groundwater resources is of great importance due to being situated of underground aquifers below the surface of mines and sand production factories. The main objective of this study is to identify and evaluate the pollution of the groundwater caused by the extraction of sand and gravel in sedimented pools located in the mines of Shahriar and Qods cities. Our research indicated that so far no study has been carried out on groundwater contamination caused by the extraction as well as washing of sand and gravel. The present study was conducted in three phases: data preparation, creation of a continuous map of groundwater contamination by Simple Kriging method, and the detection of relationships and spatial correlations between qualitative parameters and gravel mines. The results indicated that levels of bicarbonate, carbonate, nitrate, sodium, potassium, chlorine, magnesium, and acidity pollution parameters of groundwater are desirable, whereas the amount of sulfate, electrical conductivity, and Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) of groundwater in the study area are higher than the standard level. The values obtained from the spatial correlation between the distance from the sand and gravel harvesting region and sulfate, electrical conductivity, as well as TDS were -0.53, -0.56, and -0.66, respectively. These values demonstrate the high correlation between these three parameters and the extraction of sand and gravel.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Groundwater
  • Interpolation
  • Geospatial information system
  • spatial correlation
  • Shahr-e-Qods and Shahriar
Alizade Seiiedi, V. & Darzi Naft Chali, F. 2014. Investigation of environmental pollution in mines. Journal of Cement Technology, 37, 41-47 (In Persian).
Badeenezhad, A.; Gholami, M.; Jonidi Jafari, A. & Ameri, A. 2012. Factors Affecting nitrate Concentrations in Shiraz Groundwater Using Geographical Information System (GIS). Tolooebehdasht The Journal of Toloo-e-behdasht, 11(2), 47-56 (In Persian).
Bhunia, G .S.; Shit, P. K. & Maiti, R. 2018. Comparison of GIS-based interpolation methods for spatial distribution of soil organic carbon (SOC). Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences, 17(2): 114-126.
Elumalai, V.; Brindha, K.; Sithole, B. & Lakshmanan E. 2017. Spatial interpolation methods and geostatistics for mapping groundwater contamination in a coastal area. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 24, 11601–11617.
Esri. 2014. Understanding interpolation analysis.
Ghadam Pour, Z. & Shaghaghian, M. 2011. Comparison of classic time series models and artificial intelligence in determining the groundwater level. 6th National Congress of Civil Engineering (In Persian).
Hooshangi, N.; Alesheikh, A. A.; Nadiri, A. A. & Asghari Moghaddam, A. 2015. Evaluation and comparison of geostatistical and fuzzy interpolation methods in estimation of groundwater arsenic, Case study: Khoy plain aquifer. Iranian journal of Ecohydrology, 2(1), 63-77 (In Persian).
Hooshangi, N. & Alesheikh, A. A. 2015. Evaluation of ANN, ANFIS and fuzzy systems in estimation of solar radiation in IRAN. Journal of Geomatics Science and Technology, 4(3), 187-200 (In Persian).
Jafarighariehali, A.; Kazemi, G. A.; Hafezimoghadas, N. & Mosaviasterabadi, S. S. 2012. Application of GIS in the Study of Groundwater Pollution in Urban Areas (Case Study: Mashhad city). Iran-Water Resources Research, 8(2), 80-86 (In Persian).
Kim, D. M.; Yun, S. T.; Cho, Y.; Hong, J. H.; Batsaikhan, B. & Oh, J. 2017. Hydrochemical assessment of environmental status of surface and ground water in mine areas in South Korea: Emphasis on geochemical behaviors of metals and sulfate in ground water. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 183: 33-45.
Li, J. & Heap, A. D. 2014. Spatial interpolation methods applied in the environmental sciences: A review. Environmental Modelling & Software, 53(0): 173-189.
Liu, G.; Zhang, Y.; Knibbe, W. J.; Feng, C.; Liu, W.; Medema, G. & van der Meer, W. 2017. Potential impacts of changing supply-water quality on drinking water distribution: A review. Water Research, 116: 135-148.
Momeni Damaneh, J.; Joulaei, F.; Alidadi, H. & Peiravi, R. 2015. Evaluation of Interpolation Methods to Determine Spatial Variations of Groundwater Qualitative Parameters (Case study: Gonabad Plain). Journal of Research in Environmental Health, 1(3), 165-176 (In Persian).
Nekooamal Kermani, M. & Mirabbasi, R. 2018. Assessment of Interpolation Methods in Estimation of Groundwater Level (Case study: Sarkhon Plain). Hydrogeology, 2(2), 84-95 (In Persian).
Norouzi, H.; Nadiri, A. & Asghari Moghaddam, A. 2016. Investigation of Malikan Plain Groundwater’s Pollution to Arsenic. Iranian journal of Ecohydrology, 3(2), 151-166 (In Persian).
Ohmer, M.; Liesch, T.; Goeppert, N. & Goldscheider, N. 2017. On the optimal selection of interpolation methods for groundwater contouring: An example of propagation of uncertainty regarding inter-aquifer exchange. Advances in Water Resources, 109: 121-132.
Rahimi, E.; Salman Mahini, A. R. & Mir Karimi, S. H. 2016. Application of Spatial Autocorrelation Techniques to Measure Urban Sprawl, Case Study: Gorgan City. Journal of Environmental Studies, 42(1), 97-113 (In Persian).
Sahebjalal, E.; Dehghany, F. & Tabatabaeezade, M. S. 2013. Investigating Spatio-Temporal Variations of Groundwater Quality Using Kriging Method. JSTNAR, 17(65), 51-61 (In Persian).
Salah, H. 2009. Geostatistical analysis of groundwater levels in the south Al Jabal Al Akhdar area using GIS. General Water Authority, 1: 1-10.
Sivapragasam, C.; Arun, V. M. & Giridhar, D. 2010. A simple approach for improving spatial interpolation of rainfall using ANN. Meteorol Atmos Phys, 10: 109-116.
Sun, Y.; Kang, S.; Li, F. & Zhang, L. 2009. Comparison of interpolation methods for depth to groundwater and its temporal and spatial variations in the Minqin oasis of northwest China. Environmental Modelling & Software, 24: 1163-1170.
The President's Office Deputy of Strategic Planning and Control Statistical Center of Iran. 2013. Survey results of mines in operation in the country – 2010, First edition,Tehran (In Persian).
The President's Office Deputy of Strategic Planning and Control Statistical Center of Iran. 2015. Survey results of mines in operation in the country - 2014. First edition,Tehran (In Persian).