شناسایی، کمی‌سازی و پیش‌بینی الگوهای سیمای سرزمین در مکان و زمان

نوع مقاله: مقاله ترویجی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان

چکیده

در بوم‌شناسی سیمای سرزمین، رویکردهای شناسایی و کمی‌سازی الگوهای سیمای سرزمین برای نمایش گسسته سیمای سرزمین به خوبی توسعه داده شده‌اند. گسسته‌سازی اغلب به عنوان کلی‌سازی و ساده‌سازی دیده شده است. با این وجود، الگوهای سیمای سرزمین به وسیله فرایندهای پویا و پیچیده-ای شکل گرفته‌اند که در مقیاس‌های مکانی و زمانی مختلفی عمل می‌کنند. بنابراین، هنگامی که سیماهای سرزمین به عنوان شیب‌های تدریجی دیده می‌شوند و یا به هنگام کمی‌سازی مکانی سطوح تدریجی حاصل از شبیه‌سازی سیماهای سرزمین، معیارهای سیمای سرزمین استانداردی که بتواند الگوهای گسسته سیمای سرزمین یا ویژگی‌های فردی لکه‌ها را کمی‌سازی کند، وجود ندارد. از اینرو، این مطالعه با هدف شناخت و درک رویکردهای به کار رفته در بوم‌شناسی سیمای سرزمین به منظور توصیف ناهمگنی مکانی اکوسیستم‌ها، به بررسی و تحزیه و تحلیل رویکردهای مختلفی از قبیل معیارهای سیمای سرزمین، معیارهای سنجش سطح، تجزیه و تحلیل طیفی و موجی، معیارهای حاصل از زمین‌آمار و زنجیره‌های خودکار مارکوف در کمی‌سازی تغییرات مکانی– زمانی الگوها می‌پردازد. وجود رویکردها و روش‌های مختلف در شناسایی، کمی‌سازی و پیش‌بینی الگوهای سیمای سرزمین بیانگر اینست که الگوهای سیمای سرزمین را نمی‌توان تنها یا یک معیار یا شاخص خاص ارزیابی یا کمی‌سازی کرد. بنابراین، روش‌های کمی‌سازی را باید با توجه به هدف بررسی الگوهای سیمای سرزمین و فرایندهای بوم‌شناختی مورد نظر انتخاب کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Identifying, Quantifying and Predicting of Landscape Patterns in Space and Time

چکیده [English]

Identifying, Quantifying and Predicting of Landscape
Patterns in Space and Time
 
 
1*Rahimi, E.; 2Salmanmahiny A. R.
 
1 MSc. Graduated of Environment, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources
2 Assoc. Prof. College of Fisheries and Environmental Science, Gorgan University of
Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources
 
 
 (Received: 13/Sep/2016; Accepted: 23/Jan/2017)
 
 
Abstract
In landscape ecology, approaches to identify and quantify landscape patterns are well developed for discrete landscape representations. Discretization is often seen as a form of generalization and simplification. Landscape patterns however are shaped by complex dynamic processes acting at various spatial and temporal scales. Thus, standard landscape metrics that quantify static, discrete overall landscape pattern or individual patch properties may not suffice when viewing landscapes as gradients or when quantifying spatially dynamic response surfaces resulting from model simulations of landscapes. As such, this study aimed to identify and provide an understanding of the applied approaches for describing spatial heterogeneity of ecosystems in landscape ecology. Different approaches were evaluated including landscape metrics, surface metrics, wavelength and spectral analysis, geostatic indices and Markova chains in quantifying changes of temporal– spatial patterns. Existence of different approaches and methods in identifying, quantifying and predicting of landscape patterns shows that landscape patterns may not be quantified using only one index or metric, rather, quantifications methods should be selected with regards to the aim when revealing the desired landscape patterns and ecological processes.
 
 
 
 
 
Keywords: Landscape ecology, Quantification of landscape patterns, Discrete and continuous approaches, Temporal- spatial changes of landscapes.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

* Corresponding author:                                                                    Email: Ehsanrahimi666@gmail.com

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • "Landscape ecology"
  • "Quantification of landscape patterns"
  • "Discrete and continuous approaches"
  • "Temporal- spatial changes of landscapes"

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