عنوان مقاله [English]
Heavy Metals Cd, Ni and Zn in Muscle and Liver of Esox Lucius From Estuary Rivers in Mazandaran and Gilan Province
1*Mohammad Salehi, A.; 2Velayatzadeh, M.
1. Ph.D. Student of Aquaculture, Khorramshahr University of Science and Technology, Khorramshahr, Iran
2. Master's Degree in Industrial Safety, Caspian Institute of Higher Education, Qazvin, Iran
(Received: 2016/11/08; Accepted: 2018/10/02)
This study was carried out to investigate and comparison of heavy metals Cd, Ni and Zn in muscle and liver of Esox lucius some of estuary rivers in Mazandaran and Gilan Province, 2015. Sixty samples of Esox lucius were collected from 10 Estuary Rivers in the southern Caspian Sea. Data analysis was performed with the software SPSS17 and comparison of the mean to T-test. The highest concentration of Ni, Cd and Zn in liver of Esox lucius were2.73±0.18, 1.70±0.14 and 117.49±0.18 mg/Kg and lowest concentration this metals in muscle of this fish 0.10±0.01, 0.004±0.0002 and 16.23±0.16 mg/Kg respectively (P<0.05). Concentration of Ni, Cd and Zn in liver of Esox lucius from all stations were higher than muscle (P<0.05). In this research concentration of Ni in muscle of Esox lucius in estuary of Sefidrod and Poolrod rivers were higher than more WHO standard, but concentration of Cd and Zn in muscle of Esox lucius from10 stations was lower than WHO and FDA. According to the results concentration of Ni is dangerous in muscle some of Esox lucius. Also bioaccumulation high levels of heavy metals Ni, Cd and Zn in the liver of Esox lucius from 10 stations, showed pollution in aquatic ecosystems from southern coast of the Caspian Sea of Gilan and Mazandaran Province.
Keywords: Heavy metals, Muscle, Liver, Esox lucius, Caspian sea
*Corresponding author: Email: email@example.com
Abbasi, K. 2005. Identification and Investigation of Fish Distribution of Hawiq River in Gilan Province. Journal of Iranian Biology, 18 (4): 370-382. (In Persian).
Abdel-Baki, A.S.; Dkhil, M.A. & Al-Quraishy, S. 2011. Bioaccumulation of some heavy metals in tilapia fish relevant to their concentration in water and sediment of Wadi Hanifah, Saudi Arabia. African Journal Biotechnology, 10 (13): 2541–2547.
Abdoli, A. & Naderi, M. 2008. Biodiversity of fish in the southern basin of the Caspian Sea. Scientific publication of aquaculture, first edition. 237 pages (In Persian)..
Aaseth, J. & Norseth, T. 1986. Copper. In Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals, 2nd. Ed.Vol II (L. Friberg, G.F. Nordberg & V.B. Vouk, eds) pp. 233-254. Elsevier Amesterdam.
Ahmad, A.K. & Shuhaimi-Othman, M. 2010. Heavy metal concentration in sediments and fishes from Lake Chini, Pahang, Malaysia. Journal of Biological Sciences, 10 (2): 93-100.
Ahmadi, M.; Khanipour, A.A. & Abolqasemi, S.J. 2015. Measurement and comparison of heavy metal concentrations of cadmium, nickel and zinc in edible tissue of fish eagle (Esox lucius) in anzali wetland. Scientific Journal of Fisheries Journal, 24 (1): 82-75. (In Persian).
Akbarpour, A. & Nasri, F. 2006. Heavy metals and environment. Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj Branch Publishing, First Printing, Sanandaj. 175 pages. (In Persian).
Allen-Gill, S.M. & Martynov, V.G. 1995. Heavy metals burdens in nine species of freshwater and anadromous fish from the Pechora River. Northern Russia. Sciences Total Environment, 160-161: 653-659.
Alvarado, N.E.; Quesada, I.; Hylland, K.; Marigomez, I. & Soto, M. 2006. Quantitative changes in metallothionein expression in target cell-types in the gills of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) exposed to Cd, Cu, Zn and after a depuration treatment. Aquatic Toxicology, 77: 64-77.
Al-Yousuf, M.H.; El-Shahawi, M.S. & Al-Ghais, S.M. 2000. Trace metals in liver, skin and muscle of Lethrinus lentjan fish species in relation to body length and sex. Science Total Environ, 256: 87-94.
Amini Ranjbar, Gh. & Sotoudehnia, F. 2005. Accumulation of Heavy Metals in the Caspian Sea Mugil auratus muscle tissue in connection with some biometric characteristics (standard length, weight, age and gender). Iranian Journal of Fisheries Science, 14 (3): 1-18. (In Persian).
Askari Sari, A.; Khodadadi, M.; Kazemian, M.; Velayatzadeh, M. & Beheshti, M. 2010. Measurement and comparison of heavy metals (Zn, Mn, Cu, Fe) in Liza abu rivers of Karun and Bahmaneshir, Khuzestan province, Journal of Marine Science and Technology Researches, 5 (1): 61-70. (In Persian).
Askari Sari, A. & Velayatzadeh, M. 2011. Investigating the concentration of lead and zinc in liver and muscle tissues of two species of common carp and rainbow trout, Iranian Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 7 (1): 30-35. (In Persian).
Askary Sary, A.; Javahery Baboli, M.; Mahjob, S. & Velayatzadeh, M. 2012. The comparison of heavy metals (Hg, Cd, Pb) in the muscle of Otolithes ruber in Abadan and Bandar Abbas Ports, the Persian Gulf. Iranian Scientific Fisheries Journal, 21 (3): 99-106. (In Persian).
Askary Sary, A. & Velayatzadeh, M. 2014. Determination of lead and zinc in king mackerel (Scomberomorus guttatus), Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson) and Tiger-toothed Croaker (Otolithes ruber) from Persian Gulf, Iran in 2001 and 2011. Journal of Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences, 5(1): 322-329.
Bazrafshan, A. 1995. Investigation of physical and chemical parameters and oil pollution in the southeastern part of the Caspian Sea before drilling wells. Master's Thesis, Islamic Azad University, Tehran North Branch. 176 pages. (In Persian).
Coulibaly, S.; Celestin Atse, B.; Mathias Koffi, K.; Sylla, S.; Justin Konan, K. & Joel Kouassi, N. 2012. Seasonal Accumulations of Some Heavy Metal in Water, Sediment and Tissues of Black-Chinned Tilapia Sarotherodon melanotheron from Bietri Bay in Ebrie Lagoon, Ivory Coast. Bulletin Environment Contamination Toxicology, 88: 571–576.
Dadolahi Sohrab, A.; Nabavi, S.M.B. & Khiror, N. 2008. Relationship of Some Biometric Specifications with Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Muscle and Gilly Muscle (Barbus grypus) in the Arvand River River. Journal of Fisheries Science of Iran, 17 (4): 27-33. (In Persian).
Dixon, H.; Gil, A.; Gubala, C.; Lasorsa, B.; Crecelius, E. & Curtis L.R. 1996. Heavy metal accumulation in sediment and freshwater fish in U.S. Arctic Lakes. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 16 (4): 733 P.
Eboh, L.; Mepba, H. D. & Ekp, M. B. 2006. Heavy metal contaminants and processing effects on the composition, storage stability and fatty acid profiles of five common commercially available fish species in Oron Local Government, Nigeria. Journal of Food Chemistry, 97 (3): 490-497.
Ebrahimi Siriizi, Z.; Sakizadeh, M.; Esmaeili Sari, A.; Bahrami Far N.; Ghasempouri, S.M. & Abbasi, K. 2012. Investigation of heavy metals of cadmium, lead, copper and zinc in antiseptic wetland musk tissue of Anzali wetland, accumulation and risk assessment. Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, 22 (87): 63-57. (In Persian).
El-Safy, M.K. & Al-Ghannam, M.L. 1996. Studies on some heavy metal pollutants in fish of El-Manzala Lake. In: Proceedings of the Conference on Food Borne Contamination and Egyptians Health, Mansoura November, 26-27: 151-180.
Esmaili Sari, A. 2002. Pollutants, Health and Environmental Standards. Naghshe Mehr Publishing, 1 the Ed, Tehran. 767 pages. (In Persian).
Esmaeili Sari, A.; Nouri Sari, H. & Esmaili Sari, A. 2007. Mercury in the environment. Bazargan Publication, First Edition, Rasht. 226 pages. (In Persian).
Filazi A.; Baskaya R. & Kum C. 2003. Metal concentration in tissues of the Black Sea fish Mugil auratus from Sinop-Icliman, Turkey. Journal of Human and Experimental Toxicology, 22: 85-87.
Glushankova, M. A. & Pashkova, I. M. 1992. Heavy metal in the tissue of fish from the Pskovsko chudskoe and Vyrts yoru lakes. Tsitologiya, 34(3): 46-50.
Haghighi, S.S.; Ghane, A. & Nahror, M.R. 2008. Investigating the Coliform Influence of Shafarood River in West of Gilan Province. Fisheries Journal, 2 (1): 61-71 (In Persian)..
Heath, A. G. 1987. Water pollution and fish physiology. (2nd ed.). CRC. Press. Boston, USA. 245 P.
Imanpour Namin, J.; Mohammadi, M.; Heydari, S. & Monsef Rad, F. 2011. Heavy metals Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb in tissue, liver of Esox lucius and sediment from the Anzali international lagoon- Iran. Caspian Journal Environment Science, 9(1): 1-8. (In Persian).
Jalali Jafari, B. & Aghazadeh Mesghi, M. 2007. Fish poisoning due to heavy metals in water and its importance in public health. Publication Mann Book, First Edition, Tehran. 134 pages. (In Persian).
Jamalzadeh Fallah, F.; Kharah, H.; Daghigh Rohi, J. & Sayyad Borani, M. 2014. The effect of parasitic contamination on some fish duck blood factors (Esox lucius) in Anzali wetland. Journal of Zoology Research, 27 (1): 36-22. (In Persian).
Jezierska, B. & Witeska, M. 2001. Metal Toxicity to Fish. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries, 11(3): 279.
Khara, H.; Sattari, M.; Nezami Balochi, Sh.; Mousavi, A.; Jafarzadeh, A. & Azhang, B. 2004. Prevalence and severity of parasitic infections in the fish duck in Amir Kalayeh lahijan wetland. Journal of Research and Development, 4 (59): 339-333. (In Persian).
Khara, H.; Nezami Balochi, Sh.; Sattari, M.; Mirhashemi Nasab, F.; Mousavi, A.; Kosari, A.; Daneshvar, S. & Ali Nia, M.R. 2007. Prevalence and severity of parasitic infections in Chamkhaleh Langrood River duck. Journal of Fisheries Science of Iran, 16 (2): 48-37. (In Persian).
Laimanso, R. Y.; Cheung, R. Y. & Chan, K. W. 1999. Metal concentrations in the tissues of Rabbit fish (Siganus oramin) collected from Tolo Harbour and Victoria Harbour in Hong kong. Journal of Marine Pollution Bulletin, 39: 234-238.
Mashinchian, A.; Khodadadian, M. & Nabavi, S.M.B. 2012. Determination of detergent concentration and its effects on the density and diversity of phytoplankton in estuaries of rivers (Tajan, Sarakhroud and Babolrood) in Mazandaran province. 6th National Conference on Environmental Engineering, Tehran, University of Tehran, Faculty of Environment, 13 pages. (In Persian).
Massaro, E. 1997. Handbook of Human Toxicology, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, CRC Press, Boca Raton, New York, pp. 38-54, 118-119, 135-136..
Miloskovic, A. & Simic, V. 2015. Arsenic and Other Trace Elements in Five Edible Fish Species in Relation to Fish Size and Weight and Potential Health Risks for Human Consumption. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 24 (1): 199-206.
Mirmoshtaghi, S.M.; Amirnejad, R. & Khaledian, M.R. 2011. Quality study of Sefidrood River and its zoning using NSFWQI and OWQI quality indices. Journal of Ecobiology Wetland, 3 (9): 23-34. (In Persian).
Monsefrad, F.; Imanpour Nemin, J.; Heidari, P.; Mohammadi, H. & Hosseini, S.M. 2012. Relationship between essential and unnecessary metals in whitefish (Rutilus frisii kutum) on the southwest coast of the Caspian Sea. Fisheries Magazine (Natural Resources of Iran), 65 (1): 79-87. (In Persian).
Moshrofeh, A.; Riahi Bakhtiari, A. & Pourkazemi, M. 2012. The study of heavy metals of cadmium, nickel, vanadium and zinc in different tissues of elephant fish and ozone and risk of muscle tissue consumption in the southern basin of the Caspian Sea. Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, 22 (96): 90-97. (In Persian).
Nawabian, M.; Farzalizadeh, B.; Yousefi Moghadam, S. & Esmaili Voraky, M. 2013. Qualitative study of Polroud River using general indicators of water quality and comparison of indices for selecting the best indicator. 5th Iranian Water Resources Management Conference, Tehran, Iran Water Resources Science and Engineering Society, Shahid Beheshti University, 9 pages. (In Persian).
Newman, M. C. & Unger, M. A. 2003. Fundamentals of ecotoxicology. CRC Press, 458 p.
Nwani, C.D.; Nwachi, D.A.; Okogwu, O.I.; Ude, E.F. and Odoh, G.E. 2010. Heavy metals in fish species from lotic freshwater ecosystem at Afikpo, Nigeria. Journal of Environmental Biology, 31 (5): 595-601.
Papagiannis, I.; Kagalou, I.; Leonardos, J.; Petridis, D. & Kalfakakou, V. 2004. Copper and zinc in four freshwater fish species from Lake Pamvotis (Greece). Environment International, 30: 357-362.
Pourang, N.; Dennis, J. H. & Ghourchian, H. 2005. Distribution of heavy metals in (Penaeus Semisulcatus) from Persian Gulf and possible role of metallothionein in their redistribution during storage. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 100: 71–88.
Qin, D.; Jiang, H.; Bai, S.; Tang, S. & Mou, Z. 2015. Determination of 28 trace elements in three farmed cyprinid fish species from Northeast China. Food Control, 50: 1-8.
Rajaji, A.; Jahanategi, H.; Mir, A.; Hesari Motlagh, S. & Hassanpour, M. 2012. Investigating the concentration of heavy metals in water reservoirs of wells in Sistan and Baluchestan province in 2010. Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, 22 (90): 105-112. (In Persian).
Rouessac, F. & Rouessac, A. 2007. Chemical Analysis Modern Instrumentation Methods and Techniques. 2nd Edition, England, John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
ROPMI, 1999. Manual of oceanographic and pollulant analysis method. Third Edition. Kuwait. 1-100.
Sadeghi Rad, M. 1996. Investigation and determination of the amount of heavy metals (mercury, cadmium, lead, zinc, cobalt) in some species of Anzali lagoon (carp, fish duck, Carasius, Silver carp). Journal of Iranian Fisheries Science, 5 (4): 1-16. (In Persian).
Safari, R. & Yaghobzadeh, Z. 2012. Evaluation of microbial biodegradators of Shirud River in Mazandaran province. Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, 22 (98): 289-299. (In Persian).
Salimi, L.; Mehdi Nia, A. & Hasani Shafiq, P. 2014. Determination of heavy metals of arsenic, selenium, vanadium, molybdenum, mercury, nickel, cadmium, lead and iron in muscle tissue of Esox lucius in Anzali wetland. Journal of Marine Science and Technology Researches, 9 (1): 57-67. (In Persian).
Shahbazi Naserabad, S.; Pourbagher, H.; Ehdari, S. & Rajaei, M. 2014. Investigating the Flexibility of Caenis latipennis (Ephemeroptera: Caenidae) Aquatic Invertebrates in Response to Environmental Conditions along the Kheyrud River Road. Aquatic Ecology Journal, 4 (1): 18-28. (In Persian).
Sharifi, H.; Hayeripour, S. & Amirnejad, R. 2016. Determination of residue of diazinon in the Polrod River (Guilan province). Journal of Wetland Ecobiology, 8 (27): 53-64. (In Persian).
Sheikh Goodarzi, M.; Alizadeh Shabani, A.; Salman Mahini, A. & Feghhi, J. 2012. Evaluation of the effects of development on the environment of the Kermanroud area using the Land degradation model. Natural Environment (Iranian Natural Resources Magazine), 65 (2): 223-234. (In Persian).
Stoskopf, M.K. 1993. Fish medicine. WB. Saunders Co.London, England. 882P.
Taheri Azad, L.; Esmaeili Sari, A. & Rezaei Tababe, K. 2008. Measurement of mercury in different tissues of the Sander lucioperca Caspian Sea. Journal of Fisheries Science of Iran, 17 (2): 71-78. (In Persian).
Tuzen, M. 2009. Toxic and essential trace elemental contents in fish species from the Black Sea, Turkey. Journal of Food and chemical Toxicology, 47(9): 2302-2307.
Velayatzadeh, M.; Askary Sary, A.; Khodadadi, M.; Kazemian, M. & Beheshti, M. 2014. The Survey and Comparison of Heavy Metals Hg, Cd and Pb in the Tissues of Liza Abu in the Karoon and Dez Rivers in Khoozestan Province. Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 16 (3): 51-61. (In Persian).
Yilmaz, F.; Ozdemir, N.; Demirak, A. & Tuna, A.L. 2007. Heavy metal levels in two fish species Leuciscus cephalus and Lepomis gibbosus. Food Chemistry, 100: 830-835.