بررسی توزیع مکانی و زمانی گردوغبار در ایران

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه حکیم سبزواری

چکیده

یکی از مهم‌ترین چالش‌های محیط‌زیستی به وجود آمده در منطقه خاورمیانه و ایران در سال‌های اخیر پدیده گردوغبار است. طوفان گردوغبار، فرایند پیچیده‌ای است که تحت تاثیر فعل‌وانفعالات سامانه‌های جوی بوده و اساسا شرایطی مانند سرعت زیاد باد، خاک برهنه و هوای خشک سبب ایجاد آن می‌شود. بنابراین، با توجه به مطالب فوق در این پژوهش برای بررسی فصلی وقوع گردوغبار در ایران از داده‌های مجموع تعداد دفعات وقوع گردوغبار در دوره آماری 1990 تا 2012 استفاده شد. همچنین برای بررسی و پهنه‌بندی توزیع زمانی و مکانی وقوع گردوغبار در منطقه‌ی مذکور از روش وزن‌دهی معکوس فاصله (IDW) در محیط نرم‌افزار ARCGIS 10.3 استفاده شد. نتایج نشان داد که مناطق جنوب و جنوب‌شرقی و جنوب‌غربی یا به عبارتی نیمه‌ جنوبی کشور با توجه به موقعیت نسبی خود مانند عرض جغرافیایی پایین و قرار گرفتن مناطق بیابانی در این مناطق در تمام فصول سال دارای گردوغبار هستند. حتی در فصل زمستان که پدیده گردوغبار در تمام کشور به حداقل خود می‌رسد در جنوب شرق کشور که شامل مناطق جنوبی استان سیستان و بلوچستان است گردوغبار با شدت‌های متفاوت وجود دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Dust in Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mahdi Asadi
  • Mokhtar Karami
Hakim Sabzevari University
چکیده [English]

 
In recent years the phenomenon of dust is one of the most important environmental challenges exist in the Middle East and Iran. Dust storm is a complex process influenced by interactions atmospheric system and basically conditions such as wind speeds, bare soil and dry weather is causing it. Considering the above, in this study to examine the seasonal occurrence of dust in the dust of the data, the total numbers of occurrences in the period 1990 to 2012 were used. As well as to review and zoning temporal and spatial distribution of dust in the region of inverse distance weighting (IDW) in ARCGIS 10.3 software was used. The results showed that the south and southeast, and southwest of the southern half of the country or in other words according to their relative positions, such as Latitude down and to wilderness areas in the region in all seasons with dust. Even in winter, the phenomenon is minimized dust across the country In the South East of the country, including the southern part of Sistan-Baluchistan province with varying intensities there is dust.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Iran
  • Dust
  • temporal and spatial distribution
  • Inverse distance weighting method Geographic information system
Akhavan, R.; Karami Khorramabadi, M. & Soosani, J. 2012. Application of Kriging & IDW methods in mapping of crown cover & density of coppice oak forests (case study: Kakareza region, Khorramabad), Iranian Journal of Forest,(l.3)4: 305-316. (In Persian).
Akhlaq, M.; Sheltami, T. R., & Mouftah, H. T. 2012. A review of techniques & technologies for s& & dust storm detection. Reviews in Environmental Science & Biotechnology, 11(3): 305-322. (In Persian).
Ashrafi, K. h.; Shafiepour Motlagh, M. & Aslam&, A. 2013. Investigation of dust storm paths on Iran using numerical modeling & satellite imagery, Journal of Environmental Science, 56: 12-3. (In Persian).
Ataie, H.; & Ahmadi, F. 2010. Dust as One of the Environmental Problems of the Islamic World Case Study: Khuzestan Province, Proceedings of the Fourth International Congress of Islamic Geographers: 1-19. (In Persian).
Azizi, Q.; Miri, M. & Nabavi, A. 2012. Detection of dust phenomenon in western part of Iran, Journal of Arid Regions Geographic Studies, second year, 7: 63-81. (In Persian).
Bryant, R. G.; Bigg, G. R.; Mahowald, N. M.; Eckardt, F. D.; & Ross, S. G. 2007. Dust emission response to climate in southern Africa. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres (1984–2012), 112(D9): 1-17.
Fallah Zozouli, M.; Vafaee Nejad, A.; Kherkhah Zarqash, M. & Ahmadi-Dekka, F. 2014. Origin of West & Southwestern Iran Dust & Its Synoptic Analysis Using Remote Sensing & Geographic Information System. Journal of RS & GIS for Natural Resources, Fourth Year, 5: 77-61. (In Persian).
Gillette, D. A.; Adams, J.; Endo, A.; Smith, D. & Kihl, R. 1980. Threshold velocities for input of soil particles into the air by desert soils. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans (1978–2012), 85(C10): 5621-5630.
Hossein Hamzeh, N.; Fatahi, A.; Zuljoudi, M.; Ghaffarian, P. & Ranjbar, A. 2016. Synoptic & dynamic analysis of dust phenomenon & its simulation in southwestern Iran in 2005.  Journal of Spatial Analysis Environmental hazards, Third Year, 1: 91-102. (In Persian).
Karimi, Kh.; Shahrayini, H.; Nokhaneh, M. & Hafezi moghaddas, N. 2011. Identification of sources of dust storm generation in the Middle East using remote sensing. Journal of Climat Research, (2)7: 57-72. (In Persian).
Khatami, H. & Sepehrnia, Sh. 2013. Distribution of dust particles in Iran & comparison with existing st&ards. Second National Conference on Air & Sound Pollution Management, Tehran, Sharif University of Technology. (In Persian).
Khorshidoust, A.; Asadi, M. & Haji Mohammadi, H. 2019. Reviews atmospheric mechanisms governing the occurrence of days with dust city of Tabriz & tracking using HYSPILIT model & MODIS Image, Journal of geographic space, (65)19: 57-70. (In Persian).
Kim, S. W.; Yoon, S. C. & Kim, J. 2008. Columnar Asian dust particle properties observed by sun/sky radiometers from 2000 to 2006 in Korea. Atmospheric Environment, 42(3): 492-504.
Kurosaki, Y.; & Mikami, M. 2005. Regional difference in the characteristic of dust event in East Asia: relationship among dust outbreak, surface wind, & l& surface condition. Journal of the meteorological Society of Japan, 83(1): 1-18.
Lashkari, H. & Keikhosravi, Gh. 2008. Statistical & Synoptic Analysis of Dust Storms in Khorasan Razavi Province (2005-2005), Physical Geography Research, 65: 17-33. (In Persian).
Lee, E. H. & Sohn, B. J. 2011. Recent increasing trend in dust frequency over Mongolia & Inner Mongolia regions & its association with climate & surface condition change. Atmospheric Environment, 5(27): 4611-4616.
Mahowald, N. M.; Bryant, R. G.; Del Corral, J. & Steinberger, L. 2003. Ephemeral lakes & desert dust sources. Geophysical Research Letters, 30(2): 1074-1083.
Mei, D.; Xiushan, L.; Lin, S. & Ping, W. 2008. A dust storm process dynamic monitoring with multi-temporal MODIS data. The International Archives of the Photogrammetry Remote Sensing & Spatial Information Sciences, 37: 965-970.
Miller, S. D. 2003. A consolidated technique for enhancing desert dust storms with MODIS, Geophysical Research Letters: 30, 2071.
Mofidi, A.; & Jafari, J. 2011. Investigating the Role of Barley Regional Circulation on the Middle East in the Occurrence of Summer Dust Storms in Southwestern Iran, Journal of Arid Regions Geographic Studies, Second Year. 5: 45-17. (In Persian).
NOAA, Dust storms, S& storms & related NOAA activates in the Middle East, NOOAA, & Magazine Online. 2003. 1-4.
Omidvar, K. 2006. Synoptic Analysis & Analysis of S& Storms in Yazd-Ardakan Plain, Journal of Geographical Research, 81: 43-58. (In Persian).
Raiespour, K. 2008. Statistical & Synoptic Analysis of Dust Occurrence in Khuzestan Province, M.Sc., University of Sistan & Baluchestan. (In Persian).
Reynolds, R. L.; Yount, J. C.; Reheis, M.; Goldstein, H.; Chavez, P.; Fulton, R.; Whitney, J.; Fuller, C. & Forester, R. M. 2007. Dust emission from wet & dry playas in the Mojave Desert, USA. Earth Surface Processes & L&forms, 32(12): 1811-1827.
Romanof, B. 1961. Dust storms in Gobian Zone of Mongolia, The First PRC-Mongolia Workshop on limate change in arid & semi-arid Region over the Central Asia, 196, 21.
Sharma, A. R.; Kharol, S. K. & Badarinath, K. 2009. Satellite observations of unusual dust event over North-East India & its relation with meteorological conditions. Journal of Atmospheric & Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 71(17): 2032-2039.
Sohrabinia, M. & Khorshiddoust, A. M. 2007. Application of satellite data & GIS in studying air pollutants in Tehran. Habitat International, 31: 268-275. (In Persian).
Taghavi, F.; Ulad, A.; Safarad, T. & Irannejad, P. 2013. Detection & monitoring of Iranian dust storms using remote sensing methods, Journal of the Earth & Space Physics, (39) 3: 83-96. (In Persian).
Ta-Hsiung, L. 2001. Long range transport of yellow s& to Taiwan in spring, 35.
Troin, M.; Vallet-Coulomb, C.; Sylvestre, F. & Piovano, E. 2010. Hydrological modeling of a closed lake (Laguna Mar Chiquita, Argentina) in the context of 20th century climatic changes. Journal of Hydrology, 393(3): 33-244.
Washington, R.; Todd, M. C.; Engelstaedter, S.; Mbainayel, S. & Mitchell, F. 2006. Dust & the low‌‌ level circulation over the Bodélé Depression, Chad: Observations from BoDEx 2005. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres (1984–2012), 111(D3): 1-18.
Webster, R. & Oliver, M. A. 2000. Geostatistics for environmental scientists, Wiley press, 271pp.
Weihong, Q.; Lingshen, Q. & Shaoyin, S. 2001. Variations of the Dust Storm in China & its Climatic Control, Journal of Climate 15, 1216-1229.
Wu, J.; Zhao, L.; Zheng, Y. & Lü, A. 2012. Regional differences in the relationship between climatic factors, vegetation, l& surface conditions, & dust weather in China’s Beijing-Tianjin S& Source Region. Natural hazards, 62(1): 31-44.
Zarasvandi, A.; Mor, F. & Nazarpour, V. 2010. Geostatistical Study of Dust Occurrence as an Environmental Phenomenon in Khuzestan Province,QUARTERLY SHAHID CHAMRAN UNIVERSITY JOURNAL OF SCIENCE, 25: 12-29. (In Persian).